Class Notes (976,830)
CA (575,639)
McGill (34,840)
PSYC (3,813)
PSYC 211 (271)
Lecture 1

PSYC 211 Lecture 1: PSYC 211 NEURO NOTES
Premium

14 Pages
73 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Gary Brouhard
Lecture
1

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 14 pages of the document.
PSYC 211 NEURO NOTES:
Behavioural NeuroSci 2 is more intense science, lots of labwork, rats
The first midterm is on chapters 1-6.
Consciousness:
)t’s hard to create a robot… it’s impossible to create one that is human. )t’s
hard to do what the brain does. )t’s remarkable how we do the things we do.
We have not yet solved consciousness. We don’t know how consciousness is
created.
We can program computers to have cameras and see when they’re about to
bump into something, but they have no awareness. When a driverless car sees
green grass, it attaches no meaning to the grass.
We don’t just have thoughts coming in, we are aware of ourself. Houseplants
and rumba don’t have consciousness.
An ant, a fish, or a dog are higher up the chain though so they do have some
kind of subjective experience.
The brain evolved to move your muscles. That’s all. )ncrease chances of
survival.
The brain is physical and biological. We can poke the brain and change who
they are and how they see the world.
)f something doesn’t come to your attention, it is not in your consciousness.
We also need working memory (localized in the prefrontal cortex, goes to
thalamus and PFC or basal ganglia and PFC).
Consciousness: Britt says why do we need to verbalize it? Technically
disagrees with the first definition of consciousness
Corpus Callosotomy and Brain Hemispheres:
Corpus callosotomy: Splitting of the corpus callosum to treat epilepsy.
During a corpus callosotomy, brainstem remains intact.
Out of the few hundred people that did this surgery, 5-10 of them were
studied for years.
Right side of brain controls left side of body, left side of brain controls right
side of body
Patients seemed normal post surgery, seems like my left hand has a mind of
its own, it’s moving on it’s own. Left side of brain controls language, verbal
hemisphere. Left side can still communicate what it felt but the right side
couldn’t talk, couldn’t communicate what it felt. Right side is not
sophisticated with language. Left side of brain holds consciousness, as
defined before.
Touch right arm: oh you touched me, touch left arm: you’re not touching
me. Communication happens on the left side of brain, sensation happens on
right side of brain.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
They don’t recognize that they can’t process their sensations on the left side
because they don’t realize anything’s wrong, they still feel it, they just can’t
analyze it or be aware of it.
Left hand can draw pictures but can’t write words: right hemisphere is not
language, it’s pictures.
Show a screen, focus on a dot, left side of screen is a car and right side is a
basketball. So they say they saw a basketball, but they will draw a car!
(old something in your left hand right brain knows what you’re holding but
left brain can’t name it, so they won’t be able to name it.
WATCH THE VIDEO IN THE POWERPOINT
Interpreter theory: In his belief, consciousness is located in the left
hemisphere, something in there pulls it all together and can verbalize it.
Subcortical level: at the brainstem
Patient didn’t feel anything less than whole. )f you don’t have awareness of
something, it’s not in your consciousness! It might as well not exist.
Right hand has its own consciousness! Can draw pictures with eyes closed.
We have no idea who has consciousness and who does it. Is our definition a
good one? Do fish have consciousness?
Verbal brain tries to come up with excuses when they draw something
different!
People feel like they should be in charge of their body.
WHAT IS THE RIGHT SIDE THINKING? WHAT IS ITS CONSCIOUSNESS? We
don’t know because we can’t talk with the right side of the brain.
Neural scientist at MIT had a stroke, Jill Bolte.
) think therefore ) am is the portion of her brain that she lost on the day of
her stroke, left side of brain turned off.
Dalai Lama is a big fan of neuroscience research! He says he meditates to
achieve an end where he views the world different. Nirvana? Like Jill Bolte?
o Closing internal brain chatter? Does that change our experience, make
us view the world differently?
o Dalai Lama encouraged neuroscientists to study people who meditate
to see what goes on in their minds, how their view of the world
changes.
Left side of brain: what is the direct meaning of the words being spoken. Right
side: what is the meaning of the words based on the tone, the cadence.
Corpus callosum unites this! They work together.
JUMP TO CHAPTER 1b (teacher did this in class):
o The 2% Others section of cell chemical-makeup are important for
COMMUNICATION (Na+, K+, Cl-, etc)
o Nucleic acids tell us how to make proteins which are NECESSARY for
cells
o Cell membrane is a lipid bilayer
o ATP is used by the cell to accomplish something that goes against
entropy
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o Soma is a synonym for the cell body
o Microtubules are the transport roads within a cell, they’re the road
network, they traffic vesicles.
o Heart cells only transcribe genes that will make heart proteins. Non-
coding regions of DNA tell cells when proteins are necessary/unique
to them.
History of behavioral neuroscience:
Charles Darwin
o Because of him, we’ve mapped out the history of evolution.
o 14 billion years ago, we can rewind time so that it starts at a single
point. BIG BANG.
o Milky Way galaxy formed, one of a 100 billion.
o First 1.5 billion years: First cell evolved. Prokaryote. Can get bigger
and divide, but not do much else. Filled up the oceans.
o One large prokaryotic cell swallowed a small prokaryotic cell, but
couldn’t digest it, so small cell lived in the large cell, glucose ingested
by large cell is also given to small cell. Symbiotic. AND they both
create ATP! More energy created. Small cell gets smaller and smaller
until it becomes just an energy warehouse, the Mitochondria.
o So now we have mitochondria, lots of ATP, these are the ingredients
for the recipe of the eukaryote. Nucleus and organelles developed.
o Next 1.5 billion years: eukaryotic cell made. Next 1.5 billion years:
diversity of life! Wow!
o Half a billion years ago: a worm was created with a basic nerve
system! First one! It was a bilateral worm, so now all bilateria have a
nervous system! This nervous system hasn’t changed throughout
time.
o So now we can study any bilateral creature to study how nervous
systems work.
o Mouse brains and human brains are homologous.
o Darwin suggested we can study animals to learn things about humans.
o Torturing for the sake of research, though… it’s hard.
o How likely was the formation of life? Two hardest events: the first cell
and the first eukaryotic cell.
o Why haven’t we received probes from other planets? Where is
everybody? Why is there no other life as we know it?
o Functionalism: everything evolved to have a function, everything
developed for a reason.
o NEW NEURONS ARE NOT CREATED AFTER YOU’RE BORN!!! The
brain grows in size because the neurons get bigger and longer!!
Neoteny: the brain doesn’t fully develop until late teens.
o Myelination: increase speed by myelin sheath. Brain signals are sent
faster. Prefrontal cortex has more myelin.
o With age, we find new experiences less and less rewarding
o As we get older, we think there are no pros to new experiences.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
PSYC 211 NEURO NOTES: Behavioural NeuroSci 2 is more intense science, lots of labwork, rats The first midterm is on chapters 16. Consciousness: Its hard to create a robot its impossible to create one that is human. Its hard to do what the brain does. Its remarkable how we do the things we do. We have not yet solved consciousness. We dont know how consciousness is created. We can program computers to have cameras and see when theyre about to bump into something, but they have no awareness. When a driverless car sees green grass, it attaches no meaning to the grass. We dont just have thoughts coming in, we are aware of ourself. Houseplants and rumba dont have consciousness. An ant, a fish, or a dog are higher up the chain though so they do have some kind of subjective experience. The brain evolved to move your muscles. Thats all. Increase chances of survival. The brain is physical and biological. We can poke the brain and change who they are and how they see the world. If something doesnt come to your attention, it is not in your consciousness. We also need working memory (localized in the prefrontal cortex, goes to thalamus and PFC or basal ganglia and PFC). Consciousness: Britt says why do we need to verbalize it? Technically disagrees with the first definition of consciousness Corpus Callosotomy and Brain Hemispheres: Corpus callosotomy: Splitting of the corpus callosum to treat epilepsy. During a corpus callosotomy, brainstem remains intact. Out of the few hundred people that did this surgery, 510 of them were studied for years. Right side of brain controls left side of body, left side of brain controls right side of body Patients seemed normal post surgery, seems like my left hand has a mind of its own, its moving on its own. Left side of brain controls language, verbal hemisphere. Left side can still communicate what it felt but the right side couldnt talk, couldnt communicate what it felt. Right side is not sophisticated with language. Left side of brain holds consciousness, as defined before. Touch right arm: oh you touched me, touch left arm: youre not touching me. Communication happens on the left side of brain, sensation happens on right side of brain.
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit