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cognition lectures 22-23

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PSYC 213
Daniel J Levitin

PSYC 213 Cognition Set #9 (Lectures 22 & 23) [email protected] Set #10 (Lecture 24) will be sent out by email. Good luck on your finals!! April 6 2010 Lecture 22 ANNOUNCEMENTS Grades for midterm 3 will be posted at the end of the week. You can then go see your TAs with them. Information regarding the final has been posted on WebCT. The discussion boards will have to be closed the morning of the exam because some people will be writing it in the morning. Next class, Janine will come back in and distribute evaluation forms for herself only. That will be written by hand. The order of topics from the syllabus has changed because autism really falls in nicely with what we have done in social cognition last week. An overwhelming majority of people voted for autism. Why did you vote for that topic? A: Because this is apparently becoming prevalent in children and diagnosis is increasing. A: Because we dont know what it is. A: Its one of the disorders where individuals are good at certain aspects of behaviour but not so good at others. What we will do today is that we have our reading from Nation and Penny; this is a review article of gaze following behaviour in individuals with autism. It is a very recent review and accurately reflects where this field is. We will talk about diagnosis, diagnostic criteria and history of this disorder and then we will talk about prevalence and increasing rates of diagnosis and why that may be. Then we will go into understanding the social cognitive deficit. Autism, in the American Psychological Association publishes every 3-5 years a big book with all the disorders in them, and that is called the diagnostic and statistic manual of behavioural disorders. That is how all behavioural disorders are diagnosed, using the guidelines from that book. Autism is a part of pervasive developmental disorders. There is a section in the book called pervasive developmental disorders. This is opposed to specific developmental disorders like learning disabilities for example. ADHD for example is a completely different category called childhood disorders. It basically refers to a group of 5 disorders characterized by delays in multiple basic functions, including socialization and communication delay. All these 5 disorders have the same pronounced characteristic that these individuals have lack or impairment in social behaviours and communication. The pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are: Autism, called autistic disorder Aspergers Syndrome Retts Syndrome, a rare chromosomal disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) PDD-NOS (not otherwise specified), when a child cannot be put into one of these categories. That is the autism spectrum. Autistic disorder is just one part of that. Autism was first described in the 1940s by a psychiatrist named Leo Kanner. He described a group of 11 kids with a number of social characteristics like lack of social responsiveness, they were limited in their communication patterns and had unusual communication patterns. Around the same time, a person called Hans Asperger observed a group of children with similar characteristics but their symptoms were all less severe. Typically, Aspergers Syndrome is typically less severe autism, or in the field its considered to be high functioning autism. Lets look at some of the criteria for autistic disorder. To be diagnosed with autism, a total of six or more items from 1, 2 or 3 have to be present. At least two from 1, and one from each 2 and 3. DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Autistic Behaviour (A) 1. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (a) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction (b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level (c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity This first group of symptoms is all about social interaction and failure to initiate them. 2. Qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following. Individuals with autism often have trouble communicating and with language: (a) delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gestures or mime) (b) in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others (c) stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language. Individuals with autism have typical language patterns that they display, such as echolalia, which is repetitive use of language. This is similar to language in people with schizophrenia, who have marked language deficiencies and will often talk in rhymes or display echolalia, repeating words. (d) lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level. Again this is a social dysfunction.
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