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McGill University
PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Thursday January 07 2010 What is Cognitive Psychology Folk Psychology we all as human beings have intuition of who we are Scientific Psychology action faculty of Knowing study of active processesdivided into different mental activitiestogether interactions of faculties are cognition ex How intelligence relates to perception how memory relates to intelligence Concerned with low level processes high level processes and observed behavior Low level processes sensory processing High level processes memoryTopdown VERSUS bottomup processingINPUTSPEOPLEOUTPUT Light AGENTReaction VibrationsBehavior PressuremindThoughts Chemicalorganism LanguageUrlic Neisser 1967The term cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed reduced elaborated stored recovered and used It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation as in images and hallucinations Given such a sweeping definition it 2is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do that everypsychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon But although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it the concern is from a particular point of view Other viewpoints are equally legitimate and necessary Dynamic psychology which begins with motives rather than with sensory input is a case in point Instead of asking how a mans actions and experiences result from what he saw remembered or believed the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subjects goals needs or instinctsCognition is DYNAMICDialecticsa form of argument1 Thesisstatement 2 Antithesisopposing view 3 Synthesis marriage of thesis and antithesisEmpiricism versus Rationalism Structuralism versus Functionalism Reaction of structuralismGestaltthe whole is MORE than the sum of its parts Behaviorismall human behaviors can be explained by stimulus and response therefore brain is a passive organ BF Skinnerbelieved even language was acquired to stimulus and response learning through conditioningAlbert Banduravicarious learning which DISPROVED behaviorism ie the brain can process without an actual stimulus Noam Chomsky challenged BF Skinner in language inherently very complex and creative kids will say things that are complicated that for which they are not rewarded Major premise Cog 4paradigm shift 1 Accepts existence of internal mental states 2 Accepts the scientific method of inquiry ie rejects introspectionResponse time response accuracy are extremely prevalent in cognitive psychologyrelated to cognitive processing19671990changes in the fieldbirth of cognitive neuroscience predict behavior from brain functionactivity pattern classificationintrospection rejected in the cognitive psychological field because it is considered biasedhowever social psychology uses introspectionTuesday January 12 2010 Cognitive Neuroscience1990 marriage between cognitive science and neuroscience coined by GazzanigaAim to define the relationship between BRAIN and behaviorField was fueled by brainimaging2 key principles 1 Interdisciplinary Methodology convergent methods 2 Cognition Brain phrenology although discredited helped give rise to cognition the brain is dynamic and works as a whole NOT separate components Mind and Brain 1 Interactionism mind and brain and separate but can interact different parts of the brain interactie different hemispheres interact splitbrain They believe animals will act as two different people if their hemispheres are not connected disproved 2 Epiphenomenalism 3 Parallelism component of psychophysics mind has direct contact with brain 4 Isomorphism Five Basic classes of Methods 1 Neuroanatomy post mortem study anatomy of a nervous system 2 Neurophysiology measures neuronal activity invivo stimulating electrodes recording electrodes macroelectrodes microelectrodes single cell look up Dr Penfield3 Lesion studies removal of a structure that is specific to a cognitive function Irreversible Stereotactic surgery Aspiration lesions Neurochemical Electrolytic Single Dissociation Lesion A deficit function x Lesion B spare function x ControlSham Lesions ReversibleChemical Cooling of neural tissue Human Typically Irreversible Neuropsychologystudy of the link between the human brain function and behavior Brain injury which results in vascular disorders tumors degenerative disorders epilepsy
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