Class Notes (834,259)
Canada (508,446)
Psychology (3,325)
PSYC 215 (482)
Lecture

april 10.docx

5 Pages
113 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 215
Professor
Michael Sullivan
Semester
Winter

Description
th PSYC 215 – April 10 , 2012 Group Processes What is a group? - A set of individuals who have at least one of the following characteristics o Direct interactions with each other over a period of time  Ex: PSYC 215 is not a “group” – we don‟t have direct interactions o Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes o A shared, common fate, indentity or set of goals What is a collective? - Collection of people who don‟t share characteristics of a group - An assembly of people engaging in a common activity but haivng little direct interaction with each other o Not a real group  Ex: PSYC 215! - Some social psychological processes are unique to real groups o However, some things will affect both Group Behaviour - The intelligence quotient of a group can be calculated by taking the intelligence quotient of the group leader and dividing it by the number of people in the group o Brother Bertley – 1973 (African American man) o Group as a whole is not a sophisticated thinking machine – tend to behave simplistically Group Think - Can have situations where as number of people in group increases, sometimes the depth of analysis or of cognitive processing that occurs seems to decrease - Symptoms of GT o Emphasis on agreeableness in the group. Leads individuals to fail to consider important aspects - Critiquing GT - Preventing GT o Pres. Kennedy used this in Soviet Missile crisis – avoided his main people so as not to sway them - GT and group influence - Highly cohesive groups: fear of rejection for deviant opinion o Leads members to withhold info which may have lead to a better decision - Group structure; directive leadership, no mechanisms for reviewing decisions - Stressful situations; urgency overrules accuracy - Quick to agree! Normal Triplett - 1897 - Observer effects on performance - Cyclists raced faster when observers were present Social Facilitation: when others arouse us - How does presence of others affect our behaviour? - Triplett‟s finishing reel studies - Later research found conflicting findings o Sometimes the presence of others enhanced performance o Later, some suggested that performance could decline - People are more likely to win games when playing at home o Home Team Advantage – fans in the stands Max Ringelmann 1880-1913 - Collective performance associated with poorer individual performance o Pulling rope with others – you will try less because you are “depending” on them doing their part Social Loafing – when others relax us - Ringelmann – individual output declines on pooled tasks o Rowers in boat – each individual effort is less than if they were by themselves - Latane et al 1979 o Students were told to cheer or clap loudly o Varied group size o Measured sound pressure per person o More people doing it with, less you invest in your performance - When is social loafing less likely to occur? o Six conditions  People believe that their own performances can be identified and thus evaluated, by themselves or by others (less likely to see social loafing)  The task is important or meaningful to those performing it  Won‟t see loafing in Asian (Collectivist) societies because things are more meaningful (in individualistic societies (like America), then have loafing)  People believe that their own efforts are necessary for a successful outcome  The group expects to be punished for poor performance  Increase the incentives  The group is small  The group is cohesive o Has to do with proficiency of the task...  Have high level – audience will help  Have low level – compromises your performance Why Does social facilitation occur? - Zajonc‟s Mere Presence Theory o Whatever dominant response is, social presence will enhance probability that THAT will occur  depends on your proficiency o Just having other people around is sufficient for soc.facilitation to occur.  Pooled performance can increase performance on a difficult task! Decreases arousal, we are tested and identified = social security - Evaluation Apprehension Theory o Someone must be in position to evaluate performance  Reason perform better when observed is there is because you believe they will make evaluative judgement on your behaviour. This apprehension leads to arousal. - Distraction-Conflict Theory
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 215

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit