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Lecture 4

PSYC 304 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Rieti, Longitudinal Study, Informed ConsentPremium

1 pages84 viewsFall 2014

Course Code
PSYC 304
Andrea Ashbaugh

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Lecture 4 – Sept 14th
Ethics when studying children
In all psych research, must protect participants
Ability to understand, evaluate risks – power differential
-Informed consent
-Minimize harm
1. Informed consent of parent or guardian AND child
2. Do no psychological harm (deception may be harmful)
Ex Study: children under pressure that would show it during speech (they were subjected to constant criticism with grp1 and
not with grp 2 – the hypothesis was that it would induce stuttering)
Types of Research
1. Descriptive: Simply observing and recording minimal to no manipulation
Observational (Naturalistic or Structured)
Case Study (studying one person in detail or studying special observations)
2. Correlational: Attempt to identify a systematic relationship between two variables
3. Experimental: Identifying relationships and drawing causal conclusions
Quasi-Experimental: when you have two variables and you cannot really manipulate them in real life, you need
to study them as they are. Ex: studying kids who have ADHD and kids who don't (you cannot create it, or
manipulate it – look at relationship of two grouped observations) But, lose capacity to claim cause-effect)
*Self-report Bias: when people answer questions but are not accurate, or may lie (ex: drinking studies)
Developmental Research
Developmental: changes and continuities in behaviors and abilities over time
Measuring change over time
1. Longitudinal Research
Repeated measurements of same people over time
*Attrition: when you lose a participant over time for whatever reason
Correlational or experimental
Assessing dis/continuity
-Can assess stability/persistence
-Long-term effects of early experience
Repeated testing and cohort effects may confound results (does one get better at it, or just used to the
experiment and knows what to do now? - also, the generation in time does not necessarily apply to the next)
2. Cross-Sectional Design
Groups of people at different ages tested at the same time (age independent variable)
Can answer questions about developmental differences, age-related trends
Cannot answer questions about stability or long-term effects of early experiences
*Cohort effects may account for findings
3. Cross-Sequential Design
Cross-sectional study follow longitudinally
Or, Longitudinal study, and start cross-sectional every few years
4. Micro-genetic Method
Adapts longitudinal approach: repeated, intesive observations of a small number of participants over brief period
Used especially to study cognitive development
Detection of discontinuous developmental processes
Expensive, time-consuming, “repeated testing”
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