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Lecture 16

Lecture 16 - Mar 20 .doc

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 16 - Mar. 20 Implicit Theories Implicit Theories - Dweck: • Some students persist in the face of failure whereas others give up - why? • Implicit beliefs about intelligence impact approach to challenging tasks: • Intelligence unchangeable, then shy away from academic challenges • Intelligence malleable (increased through effort and persistence), then seek them out • “Entity” • Attributes fixed • Performance goals • Document ability • Avoid risk • Ascribed • “Incremental” • Attributes malleable (can be acquired) • Learning goals • Develop ability (acquire/develop competence) • Seek challenge • Achieved Making Judgements About Ability - Butler: • How do people interpret temporal trends: • Do implicit theories influence the kinds of attributions people make about ability from information on improving/declining per- formance? • Do implicit theories influence diagnostically of feedback? • 1st performance fixes judgment • Last performance reflects what has been learned • Entity (stable): 1st outcome diagnostic; infer higher ability event when performance declines • Incremental (malleable): last outcome diagnostic; infer higher ability when performance improves Study 1 - Butler: • 215 students (grades 8 & 9) • Manipulation: • Entity: “Studies show that mathematical ability does not change much throughout life” • Incremental: “Studies show that people acquire math ability through learning and practice; people who learn as they work develop higher ability.” • No theory (but measured individual differences) • Rate students based on scores on 10 math problems/day, over 10 successive days: • Ascending (½) • Descending (½) • Results: • Ps in entity condition rated the people’s performance as higher in the descending condition; they anchored on the per- son’s first performance and disregarded the subsequent marks Ps in incremental condition rated the people’s performance as higher in the ascending condition; they saw the trend of • the marks are gradually increasing and looked at the final score • Ps in entity condition considered the group with declining scores as having a greater math ability • Ps in incremental condition considered the group with improving scores as having a greater math ability Study 2: Temporal vs Normative Feedback (Self): • Implicit theories will moderate self appraisal • Entity: document ability → normative feedback diagnostic • Incremental document ability to acquire competence → temporal feedback diagnostic • 398 pupils in grade 8 or 9 • Assess individual differences in implicit theories • Perform spatial or verbal reassigning task • Bogus feedback (¼): • Temporal feedback • Improvement vs decline • Normative feedback (compared to other students) • Success vs failure • Results: • Butler predicted that entity theorists who are concerned with documenting ability would consider normative feedback as more diagnostic of ability • Ps who are entity theorist rated themselves as higher in ability when they were told they performed better than other students; they rated themselves lower when they were told they performed worse than other students • Ps who were incremental theorists did not consider normative feedback as diagnostic; there’s no difference when they got normative feedback about success or failure, they didn’t change their attributions about their own intelligence • Ps who are incremental theorist considered temporal feedback information as more diagnostic of intelligence, in particu- lar were more influenced with the manipulation and would rate their analytical abilities as being high when they im- proved Theories of Intelligence - Dweck & Henderson: • “Everyone has a certain amount of mathematical ability, and one can’t do much to change this amount” • “One’s mathematical ability is something about oneself that one can’t change much” • “People can learn new things in math, but they can’t change their basic mathematical ability” Lay Dispositionism & Implicit Theories of Personality - Chiu, Hong & Dweck: • Does behaviour in one situation allow you to predict a person’s behaviour in a different situation? • Lay dispositionism: • Traits are basic unit of analysis in social perception; we look at one’s behaviour and see the extent their behaviour is in- dicative of their personality or traits Using traits to predict behaviour in a specific situation • • Using single behaviour to predict a person’s traits (disposition) • Behaviour consistent across situations • Do implicit theories of personality influence lay dispositionism? A Lay Dispositionist Model of Behaviour: Measuring Implicit Theories of Dispositionism: • “The kind of person someone is, is something very basic about them and it ca’t be changed very much” • “People can do things differently, but the important parts of who they are can’t really be changed” • “Everyone is a certain kind of person and there is not much that can be done to really change that” Lay Dispositionism: • Entity theorist • Traits are fixed • Diagnose at one time • Predict behaviour at another time • Incremental theorist • Qualities are malleable • Understand dynamics of behaviour • Weaker trait inferences Study 1: Predicting Future Behaviour H1: Are entity theorists more likely to use traits disp
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