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Lecture 4

PSYC 342 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Insulin Resistance, Secondary Sex Characteristic, Dehydroepiandrosterone

Course Code
PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

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PSYC342 Lecture 4 - Jan. 19
Hormones & Endocrine Systems: Overview
Three different communication systems
The nervous system (uses neurotransmitters)
The endocrine system (uses hormones)
The immune system (uses cytokines, fights infections and disease)
Interacting: Nervous system controls hormonal release and cytokine release; hormones can af-
fect neuronal firing
Similarities and Differences
The endocrine system: Overview
HT hormones
PT hormones
Functional Organization of the Nervous System:
Evolutionary newer additions took over control from previous additions and became their new mas-
Results in increased environmental control
Intellect, cognition, reasoning - neocortex
Functions of the older structures?
Reasons for use of Neurotransmitter in the NS:
Up and down regulation of activation
Possible through use of neurotransmitter
Centralize neurotransmitter
Failsafe mechanism
Development and learning
Neurotransmitter helps establish new connections
You can up regulate to signify importance
Centralized control
Understood as subserving centralize control
Excursion: Multiple Sclerosis and the Immune system:
Inflammatory disease (traditional hypothesis)
Disease of the myelin sheath; attacks and destroys them resulting in reduce processing of elec-
trical signals through neurons
Stops perception and motor functions

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Impaired veinous drainage in the brain (vascular hypothesis)
Higher pressure in NS causes the disease
Time and future research will tell what’s the correct approach
The Endocrine System:
Endocrine means ‘the internal secretion of a biologically active substance’
Gland has something to do with hormone; it produces and secretes a hormone
The Definition of a Hormone:
Chemical messenger effective in minute quantities
Synthesized in ductless (no tubing) glands
Secreted into and transported by blood
Acts on receptors located far away from synthesis
Exerts a specific regulatory effect on target cells
Slower than neurons; timing is not an issue for hormones
Does not target a specific area but rather diffuses throughout the body
Exceptions to the Rule (Hormones):
Some hormones not synthesized in ductless glands
Hormones sometimes act as neurotransmitters (paracrine function)
Can influence cell that released them (autocrine function)
Can get feedback from body
Hormones can generalized effects, or different effects depending on the specific receptor type
Two Chemical Classes of Hormones:
Amino acids and peptides
Peptides can’t get to the brain unless already there
Steroid hormones (four-ringed chemical base)
Already in the brain
Overview of the Endocrine System: The Endocrine Control Center
Hypothalamus and Pituitary (most important hormonal control center)
Within the diencephalon, just inferior to the thalamus
Control a number of endocrine glands, and a range of physiological activities
Major point of interaction of nervous system and endocrine system
Part of limbic system; thus takes part in relay center
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH):
Synthesized in the anterior portion of the PVN (Paraventricular Nucleus) of the hypothalamus
Stimulates the secretion of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) from the Pituitary
CRH releases ACTH
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH):
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