Rubbing fur on amber (electron) causes an attraction between the two and even a spark. Queen elizabeth i (electricus of amber: gilbert. Barometer, atmospheric pressure: napier, kepler, harvey, pascal. Isaac newton: fahrenheit germany, celsius sweden. Oxygen, combustion and respiration: lavoisier and j. priestly. Vaccination and cowpox immunize against smallpox: jenner. Thomas edison (dc) & tesla (ac: animal electricity or galvanic current. Learned societies (academies: people who did not like church control over universities, emerged with the purpose of creating scientific research and debate, university, teaching and research and debates, academy, teaching was not. Specific conclusion about an object the observations are collected is made before its observation. The swans observed are white, thus all swans are white. All swans are white; this bird is a swan; therefore, its colour is white. Pythagorean-platonian tradition: bacon, j. locke, g. berkeley, james mill, John stewart mill: descartes, b. spinoza, g. leibniz, i. kant.