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PSYC 436
Irving Binik

9/27 27/09/2011 07:55:00 ← If inc sex from once a month to once a week is like making an extra 50,000 a year in the happiness equation • Something about sex is related to well being—we don’t know if it’s physically or psychologically or whatever ← Motivated laumann study—spread of disease and STDs • If understand behavior that transmits disease better than have better handle prevention o Do this by surveys—but do people tell truth o In most populations the spread is still going up—hasn’t been controlled in any way  We don’t really know why but there are models that try and explain this:  FISHER IMB MODEL • Information, motivation, behavioral model o It’s really a general health model than can be applired to this • Info: 1) doesn’t predict anything because now everyone knows what predicts the spread of AIDS. E.g. everyone knows that smoking is bad but the info has little effect o Fisher says it’s the RELATED info that is what counts  Says should correct info people THINK is correct but is wrong  E.g. monogamous relationships are safe, it’s too late anyways I’ve had unprotected sex  Says have to get way more sophisticated about our info • Motivation: o 1) have to have positive attitudes about prevention e.g. in relationship need to both have positive attitudes about prevention o Have to be motivated to do something about it. Can have all the right info o 2) Perceived normative support: are people around you or people that you perceive to be relavant to you. are they engaging in those behaviors or do they agree about statements and info around it  Motivation will suffer if don’t o 3) Estimation of personal vulnerability  on avg people will give themselves a LOWER vulnerability to the population average. It’s the SAME unless doing something different. Best guess is the base rate  have to work on this motivation and unconvince people • Behavioral skills o Buying condoms, keeping condoms, negotiating safe sex practices with partner, testing etc that will help but if uncomfortable and havnet practiced. Have to practice skills and will help • Fisher is doing a lot of work in Africa and places that have a high amount: o Well know if works through surveys and drop in number or lack of drop o Even if testing we need to know how things happened Conclusion: can we get truth from survey self report? • We don’t know. • Right now if took survey from people in the field of FDA, sexologist, etc o They will say self report is the best measure we have right now o Better than behavioral and physiological but it’s the best we have ← Use converging methods: if checking for a behavior in a couple, can check with the opposite couple to see if the data converges • We’ll never know if it’s the real truth ← ← Technology of self reports would improve a ton if we had one major one every 50 years. We need to do them more frequently. Not a lot of funding is going towards it right now ← ← Structure of course: ← Theory- what do we mean by desire, arousal etc. not totally definable. We need a good defn to study properly ← Research- choose set of expts about each topic to demonstrate at least one line of research ← Application-clinical application part. Take problems with each topic and discuss how research has helped us develop how we deal with these problems ← ← Chose these 3 topics because constitute new sexual response cycle ← ← In 1970’s plateau and resolution disappeared • People didn’t find them useful, there was no research. It was a figment of masters and johnsons models. People stopped talking about them so they got dropped from models of sexuality Why did desire appear in cycle • For clinical reasons-nothing in masters and johnsons about lack of desire. Clinicians who tried to work within this model were flooded by people complaining (in 1970s almost 100% women) about low sexual desire. Couldn’t find it as part of the model so realized it was a problem. • Did low desire appear suddenly as a problem in 1970s? o No body knows the answer b/c surveys didn’t ask much about it before then o Binik doesn’t think this is a new problem that just appeared in 1970s.  Opinion: people began to be concerned about sexual desire because of social mileau that was occurring  Second sexual resolution in 1960s: sex because very positively evaluated  No such thing as too much sex. No STDS. Birth control widely available. All sex good.  People thought were missing out and had low sexual desire. Maybe it was a relative thing • Now men complain about low sexual desire too. In 2011, almost as many men complaining about low sexual desire as women o Binik doesn’t think it’s something about evolution. He thinks it sociocultural ← ← ← Class Survey about sexual desire: • We would expect erection to be most common male response  physical markers • From women getting mostly physical sensations as well • Surprised not more emotional and cognitive reponses from women • Women almost always use more words  words indicative of a much wider defn of what came up from arousal o Arousal—usually gets boiled down to physical actions o Desire—includes physical but includes cognitive emotional stuff • Problems: when think about arousal there are 2 kinds: o If binik had pushed us, for women: difference between subjective aspects of arousal vs. physical o If binik had primed us and told us to give subjective, arousal would be hard to differentiate between desire ← ← SO if there is subjective arousal, whats the difference between it and desire ← ← Problems of desire • What is desire exactly? • Is there a demarcation between physical and psychological • If think of desire as an emotion. James-lange—if take away all the physical symptoms, what’s left? Is that anger? o Are they linked, or can you have a nonphysical emotion • Long history of trying to say d
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