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February 11 - PSYC473.docx

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PSYC 473
Mark Baldwin

02/11 Goals  What is the social cognition of behaviour?  McClelland, Koestner, and Weinberger (1989) o Implicit and explicit motivation o Implicit measure – Asked people to tell them a story after looking at a photograph o There may be some achievement themes for certain people o Implicit vs. explicit motivation  Implicit measure – tell a story  Explicit measure – self-reports o DV: learn picture –word pairs  Show a boat and a dog and then later ask them what two words are paired  They were trying to see how motivated people would be to learn these word pairs o IV – ½ given instructions highlighting “doing well” o Implicit measure predicts performance in all conditions o Explicit measure predicts only when the achievement is emphasized o So even when person isn’t consciously focused on doing well, implicit motivation seems to guide behaviour o Does their premeasured motivation correlate with how well they do on the task?  Yes, the degree to which people talked about achievement themes following the photograph were more likely to do well on the task  Here, the implicit motivation guided the behaviour o This is one of the first studies that launched to show how these types of motivations can be measured  John Bargh was later wondering if you can activate goal related structures  Rudeness study: o Is this due to activated goal-related structures? o Task 1: Prime via scrambled sentences  IV: 1/3 primed with rudeness (bold, interrupt)  1/3 primed with politeness (respect, courteous)  1/3 control condition o Experimenter deep in conversation o DV: would S interrupt? o Politeness: 20% o Control: 40% o Rudeness: 60% o Theprimes did influence behaviour. This was one of theearliest studies that youcan treat a goal and see fairly influential effects on behaviour.  Impression study: o Can we activate goals rather than scripts? o We can have behavioural goals but we can also have cognitive goals o S reading about target person o Portrayed as mostly honest or mostly dishonest o IV: ½ S’s subliminally primed with impression words (impression, judgment)  If people were primed to say: try to form an impression saw the person in different ways  Simply using words managed to prime this mindset relating to a goal o Primed S’s formed more extreme impressions  Persistence study: o Do activated goals have behavioural effects? o IV: prime via word-search task  ½ S’s searched for achievement words (achieve, succeed)  ½ control condition (neutral words) o Next task: make words from 9 scrabble tiles o Stop when signal sounds o How many worked beyond the stop signal:  Control: 22%  Primed: 55% (primed with achievement words) – the idea is that they’re motivated to achieve so this produced the behavioural effect  Behaviour that is guided by goals that the person has can function implicitly  So goals can be activated and have behavioural effects: o What kind of cognitive structure would need to be involved, to convert activated goals in automatic behaviour o E.g., responding to environmental input, to trigger behaviour, to deal with obstacles, etc.  This goal related behaviour could be a fairly simple system – cognitive nuts and bolts o The book “Vehicles” has some suggestions o E.g., how to make a vehicle to achieve a goal of movement in a complex space o How would you create an action-oriented thing with very simple bits o You can build some fairly intelligent things out of very s
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