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Lecture

February 13 - PSYC473.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 473
Professor
Mark Baldwin
Semester
Winter

Description
Feb.13, 2013 Psyc 473: Lec.11  Symposium this Friday regarding achievement around 3pm Slide 1:  Diederik Stapel  Social cognition researcher  In 2011, confessed to faking and manipulating data in 30 or more publications  In particular, material in Chpt.10, p. 427: traits vs. exemplars as primes will not be covered on the test o We don’t yet know which of things he reported is true, nevertheless we can’t use that material, because it has been fabricated Slide 2: Attachment Slide 3: Which of the following best describes your feelings in your relationships, in general? 1) I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. 2) I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. 3) I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. My desire for intimacy sometimes scares people away. Slide 4: Background  Bowlby’s Attachment Theory (1969) o Evolution has “wired” humans to seek closeness and, thereby, emotional security o We learn patterns of closeness, developing “working models” of how best to achieve closeness and emotional security  Bowlby: one of the earliest social cognitive theorists Slide 5: Hazan and Shaver (1987)  Original work applying attachment theory to adults  Put it in the newspaper, valentine section, valentine’s day quiz o Ask people to pick which one describes them; ask other questions as well 1  SECURE: I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.  AVOIDANT: I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.  ANXIOUS (or “Anxious/Ambivalent”): I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. My desire for intimacy sometimes scares people away.  Often called attachment orientations; nowadays can be called attachment styles o Style implies that it is a stable aspect of personality, so prof. doesn’t like that (at the end of the lecture prof. speaks about how there is evidence to suggest there is flexibility)  There are other sets of labels; there is another model of adult attachment that uses different labels o Fourth label fearful/avoidant; prof. is not going to go into it Slide 6:  Approximate percentages in most studies o Secure: 55% o Avoidant: 25% o Anxious: 20%  Do get slight cultural differences, but usually results don’t vary much Slide 7: Correlates of Secure pattern (just to illustrate):  Highly invested in relationships; tends to have long, trusting ones  Grieves following loss but achieves resolution  Enjoys sex (but usually in the context of a long-term relationship)  Feels well-liked by coworkers  Describes parents in favorable (though not unrealistic) terms Is supportive of partner when partner is under stress  Self-discloses appropriately and likes others to self-disclose  Seeks integrative, mutually satisfactory resolutions of conflicts  Regulates anger effectively, tends to forget negative interactions or reinterpret them constructively  Likely to adopt parents' religion (and view God as a good parent) Slide 8: Correlates of Avoidant pattern  Less invested in relationships, expresses less grief following loss  Imagines someone other than actual partner during sex 2  Has more "one night" sexual encounters  Prefers to work alone; work is excuse to avoid close relationships  Describes parents as rejecting and cold  More likely to have been abused or to have had a parent with an alcohol problem  Withdraws support from partner when partner or self is stressed  Feels bored and distant during social interactions  Doesn't like to self-disclose, doesn't approve of others who disclose Slide 9: Correlates of the Anxious (or “Anxious/Ambivalent”) pattern  Invested in relationships yet high breakup rate (same partner)  Grieves intensely following loss  Prefers the "cuddly" rather than the genital aspects of sex  Prefers to work with others but feels under-appreciated at work  Binges on chocolate (and is vulnerable to bulimia)  Describes parents as intrusive and unfair  Worries about rejection during daily interactions  Self-discloses too much and indiscriminately, likes disclosers  Subject to jealousy, unregulated anger and "anger-in" Slide 10: Simpson et al. (1992)  A lot of the literature/research for years, a decade at least, just correlated one thing with another based on questionnaires o Even though this study uses correlates as well, it’s one of the better studies because it is actually based on behavioural observations and not questionnaires  How does attachment style affect reactions to stress?  Method: o Dating couples o Attachment styles measured o Woman told she would be taking part in “stressful activity” o Couple videotaped while they waited for 5 minutes  Results: o For secure women, the more scared they looked the more comfort they sought o For avoidant women, the more scared they looked the less comfort they sought  Avoidance is essentially rooted in the feeling that I’m going to just rely on myself o For anxious women, the results were unclear, possibly reflecting their ambivalence  Anxious/ambivalent: I want help, but I’m not sure if I can trust them  How we manage stress is a significant part of our personalities 3 Slide 11: Is the attachment figure attentive and responsive? No Yes Insecurity and “secondary strategies”  Being insecure leads you to adopt secondary strategies; it is secondary way of getting what you need Is proximity-seeking a viable option?  Think of an anxious child following his/her mother around, “Felt security”, gives trying to get what’s needed confidence Yes: expressing anxiety, No: defensiveness, avoiding maintain proximity, visual intimacy, and self-reliance monitoring, and clinging  If proximity seeking is not  Hope is by doing this, an option, then have to you will get what you move on to plan b or c need; can imagine this  So you develop your own approach with young strategies to help you cope children or animals with stressful situations Slide 12:  What is the social cognitive basis of differences in attachment orientations? Differences in, e.g., o Goals o Expectancies o Strategies Slide 13: Outcome Expectancies (Baldwin et al., 1996)  A questionnaire was administered o Three major themes: closeness, trust, and dependency  Imagine you were in a situation where you needed to depend on your partner o What are you expectancies?  IF I were to depend on my partner he/she would...  support me  leave me  IF I were to try to get closer to m
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