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SOCI 222 (11)

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Sociology (Arts)
Course Code
SOCI 222
Donald Hinrichs

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P14 CP Paleolithic = the Ald Stone Age (500000 BC) Nomads (Following the animals and not creating cities)  Tools for killing included rocks  9000 BC = Mesolithic  Forests grew because glaciers retreated  Small animals emerged  Dog was domesticated  Axe and fishing net developed  People began to settle down (early settlements created) 8000 BC Jericho (present day Israel) Farming  7000 BC = Neolithic Rev or Agriculture Revolution  Plants and animals were domesticated (horses and the growing of plants) Technology (grinding of stone tools_ ▯ spears  Weaving and pottery  Most of the settlers were farmers feeding themselves  6500 BC Jarma (identified settlement) 3500 BC first true cities (prior to this time, there were only settlements) Reasons for this: • Climate  • Technology (stone tools, weaving) • Surplus (In settlements, people grew enough to survive, but in cities, they grew in surplus)  • Social structure/organization (emergence of the state and the system such as taxation)  V. Gordon Childe (view his criteria for the city): P17 CP • Greater size and more dense • Division of labor is more complex • Development of great art/writing  • Predictive science (astrology, geometry) • Taxation • Formation of the state • Monumental public buildings • Foreign trade • Class structure developed (people became unequal due to taxes)  City’s definition are always time specific  Civilization (name of the state, great art, taxation)  300 BC first real Mayan Citiy 300 BC – 476 AD Greek and Roman Cities  Coulanges Criteria of Ancient Cities (P17 CP)  Religion and protecting gods meant a City  A citizen of an ancient city meant protecting your God and having a harth in the house (a place for  the Gods)  All cities had walls (to protect themselves)  Patricians: Owned everything, only ones that had the Harth and shared the religion of the city Plebes: were not citizens because they did not meet Coulanges criteria  1096 – Crusades  Medieval Cities were in­between these times  1700’s Industrial Revolution (1712) Pire
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