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1AA3 Day 1.docxEmiEE

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Sandra Preston

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January 10/2012 Anthropology 1AA3 Physical Anthropology / The multiple fields: Osteology (Osteo = bone, ology = study of) - Study of the structure and function of the human skeleton - This is the foundation for the basis of understanding fossils  Central to physical anthropology  Changes in fossils  How we lived in the past  Adaptation in living populations o Example: How do we know if an organism is bipedal (walks on two feet)? o Different areas on the skeleton can determine this  Eg. Humans have a hole on the bottom of our skulls where our spinal columns go up our brains > great apes have this hole at the back of the skull  Humans have a double S shaped curved spine > great apes have a variation  Humans have an open, broad pelvis (we have a broad centre of balance to walk bipedal because of our pelvis) > apes have a narrow and tall pelvis  Humans are knock-kneed > great apes have straight legs Paleontology – study of fossil animals and plants Paleoanthropology: - Study of the human fossil record - When and where do we see the first evidence for humans? - What are human characteristics? o What makes a specific fossil, human? o This is an ongoing debate Primatology: - Focused at looking at non-human primates o Non-human is because we are primates as well, we are just a specialized species - Social behaviour, communication, infant care, reproduction - Understand natural forces that have shaped human evolution and aspects of human behaviour (=context) Human Biology - Human growth and development o Studying differences in populations and explaining variations in biology - Adaptation to environmental extremes - Human variation in modern populations (some biological, maybe cultural) January 10/2012 Forensic Anthropology - Application + understanding of anthropology in a legal context - When human remains are actually recove
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