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ANTHROP 1AA3 (999)

February 5.docx

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McMaster University
Tracy Prowse

February 5, 2013 Missing Monday’s notes Last class -3 epidemiological transitions -origins of agriculture ~10 000 years ago -Industrialization-infectious to chronic diseases -globalization- re-emergence of infectious diseases thinking about disease in biomedical metaphors 3 Epidemiological Transition-emerging diseases and human activity Dams schistosomiasis -little water borne pathogens burrow into bottom of feet and infect individual Cultivation hemorrhagic fever -general term for a disease that causes really high fevers and cause internal and external bleeding Deforestationmalaria -trees are useful; go through large tracts of forest create swampy areas and create an environment for mosquitoes Irrigation mosquito borne diseases -when we feed plants with water-standing water is where mosquitoes lay their eggs -Dengue fever, West Nile Virus Duck-swine farming in China influenza -animal husbandry practice has created an environment for influenza virus to mutate These are human activities that benefit but there are unintended consequences/diseases Ebola -first cases-1976 -restricted mainly to central Africa -when virus gets into the body it causes extreme fever and internal/external hemorrhaging -organs start to bleed out -no treatment or vaccine -50-90% mortality-when we look at this rate around 50% but can get as high as 90%, especially in developing nations in Africa -Ebola is transmitted through direct contact with blood or other secretions Biological and Social Landscape of Ebola -natural host are bats -however if they come into contact with other animals specifically apes, chimpanzees and a small herbivore called a duiker in Africa -if they die/hunters (hunting for bush meat) or killing for baby gorillas or for their hands infected by Ebola virus and unknowingly pass it on to their family, possibly the village and then maybe even onto the hospital Hantavirus -transmitted via urine and feces of deer mice -may variants of this virus due to mutations -‘new’ virus appeared in US southwest in 1993 Native American reserves -this virus was actually causing a severe Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome -people were inhaling the dust from deer mice or direct contact with one -virus caused the lungs to fill up with fluid -Same initial symptoms as influenza and people would die within 2-3 days if left untreated -50% mortality -had to deal with mice population in these areas (minimize them) Dengue Fever -known for ~200 years -transmitted by mosquitoes -due to global warming changed range of mosquitos and an outbreak occurred in Florida -considered a tropical/subtropical disease -high fever; seizures; potentially deadly -in areas without quick medical response times the virus is more deadly - ½ world’s population is potentially at risk for Dengue fever due to global warming and changes of global distribution of mosquitoes -more tha
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