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Tracy Prowse

Pages 243-247 Summary The Evolution of Homo sapiens - H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens, and has the widest distribution of any other hominid species, other than humans!  Replacement Model - Also called the “recent African origin of modern humans model” - Holds that H. sapiens evolved in one area of the world first, and migrated to other regions (figure 5.6b on page243 shows this) - Called a replacement model because h. sapiens were contemporaries (A person or thing living or existing at the same time as another) of h. erectus but eventually replaced them. - They were both on genetically different lineages - Current replacement view: h. heidelbergensis was an intermediate species between h. erectus and h. sapiens – this species (in Europe and Asia) became extinct/turned into h. sapiens  Multiregional Model - According to this model: the gradual evolution of h. erectus into modern h. sapiens took place in various parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe at the same time (figure 5.6a on page243 shows this) - Recent perspective: gene flow between populations in the different regions prevented the evolution of distinct species  Hybridization and Assimilation Models - They allow for varying degrees of gene flow between h. sapiens and earlier populations of h. erectus - Gene flow occurred as a result of population migration across populations - H. sapiens came from Africa first (over 100k,000 yearS ago) and migrated to other areas of the world Genetic Data and Modern Human Origins - Human lineage evolved in Africa Mitochondrial Eve - The use of Mitochondrial DNA in modern humans to understand human origins - Study: 147 women from Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, and New Guinea - African women: had more mutations, which meant that they had a long time to accumulate - Modern humans moved out of Africa, replacing the H. erectus populations throughout the world Paternal Genetic Ancestry - Study of information encoded on the Y chromosome - Y chromosomes provide a genetic record of paternal ancestry - This study also suggests African origin for modern humans – however, It also suggests movement back into Africa, after they left. Archaic Homo sapiens - Homindids over the past 200,000 years are in 2 categories: archaic Homo sapiens and anatomically modern Homo sapiens - Archaic Homo sapiens are transitioned forms of H. erectus, which then transitioned to modern Homo sapiens Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - Also known as “Neandertal man” - Portrayed as second-rate hominds that become extinct because of modern humans - They had a different bone structure than humans (figure 5.7 on page246 describes it) - Larger cranium=could accommodate the same size brain as modern humans, possible larger. - Structure and intellectual ability mirrored modern day humans Neandertals and Modern Humans - Neandertals: a transitional species between homo erectus and mo
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