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Lecture 20

Lecture 20 Durkheim.docx

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McMaster University
Antonio Sorge

Anthropology 2R03: Religion, Magic and Witchcraft February 28 2013 Lecture 20: Durkheim - Division of labour in society o Simple Society  Mechanical  Multipex roles  Everyone: have diff resps that interact as part of their role as hunter/gatherer and as part of other roles o People have multiple social roles  Someone attacks the village – all the people will stop them. There are no cops or soldiers  Specialize in everything  Simple division of labour – everyone does everything o Complex Society  Organic  Simplex roles  Me: student – have diff resps that interact as part of this role, but this is all I am o If someone attacks Canada, I am a student, not a soldier, I am a student o If someone breaks into my house, I call the police, I am a student, not a cop o Have a certain role, it is only one role o Specialize in one thing  Very complex division of labour in a society like this - Collective consciousness results in solidarity o Reflects the collective consciousness (or “conscience collective”)  Key term in Durkhiem that ha a double meaning  Cognitive function: Means particular pattern of consciousness (beliefs, ideas, values etc.) shared by a group of people – mental categories people have to interpret the world o Diff from soc to soc o “Culture” o Lens thru which people gaze to understand the world  Also fulfills an emotional function: gives people the sense of belonging to the same soc o Emo satisfaction of knowing you are part of something bigger than yourself o Sense of resp to the collective – owe things to the people around you – creates a sense of belonging together - The social person in durkheimian thinking – see on slide “individual and person” o Distingushies btw individ and person  Individ – the human being – bio identity that is an individual person , with all their drives and desires kept in place by soc/culture  Soc/culture reminds them of their resp to one another – conscience collective  Person – the cultured individual who is made to think or feel a certain way thanks to the collective conscience  Beh is checked by soc/cult  Person = individual + conscience collective o P = I + CC - Mechanical and organic solidarity o Mechanical solidarity in simple soc  The unit of production is typically a small family or band (50-200 people, everyone is mostly related, nows eachother) which is more or less self-sufficient and economically similar to other U of P’s  E.g. Hunter-Gatherer socs  Being self-sufficient, they have little reliance on outside people, but are recipricol with one another in times of need o Small scale soc where everyone does the same thing as everyone else – no interdependency – weak social integration –
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