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Andrew Wade

Introduction to the Human Skeleton January 14 , 2013 Learn the major bones of the skeleton Gross structure of Bone Cortical bone: – external surface of bones – Dense; few pores or air spaces Cancellous bone: – (trabecular/'spongy' bone) – typically found in the ends of long bones (have a shaft + 2 ends) – covered by a line layer of compact bone The Function of Bone – Support – Movement – Protection of vital tissues and organs (Head, chest) – Mineral Reservoirs (eg. Calcium) – Production of red blood cells – Marital cavities 206 bones in human skeleton Axial skeleton: skull, mandible, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, sacrum Appendicular skeleton: shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, bones of arms and legs – bones that connect to the axial skeleton The Skull: Protect brain and sensory organs. Cranial Terminology: Skull – The skeleton of the head; with or without the mandible Cranium – skull w/o mandible Vault or Calvaria – skull w/o facial bones – brain case, separate from the facial skeleton Top half of the calvria – calotte. Part that is cut off when brain is observed Cranium: 22 bones (+ 6 ear bones) = 28 Eye orbit – formed by many different intersecting bones Cranium bones consist of 2 layers – compact and spongy bone(diploe) Bones of the Cranial Vault (8) Components: – Frontal – Parietals (2) Left and Right – Mid line – Occipital – Underneath at the back where the spine connects – Temporals (2) Side by ear – Sphenoid – Internal – Ethmoid – not visible – in behind the nose Sutures – joints connecting bones of the skull, connected by dense fibrous connective tissue Infants have fibrous tissue at the top of the head that hasnt been fully encased by bone yet Facial Bones (14) – Maxilla (2) Left/Right – Hold teeth in place – Nasal (2) Form the bridge of the Nose Left/Right – Zygomatic (2) Connects Frontal and Maxilla and Nasal together – Cheek Bones – Palatine (2) Form palate of the mouth Left/Right – Vomer – (septum) – Inf. Nasal concha (2) – Lacrimal (2) Inside of orbital bones – Mandible – Lower jaw Teeth In each quart
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