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Lecture 2

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Zoonosis

Course Code
Andrew Wade

of 3
Human Origins & Interactions
Misconceptions About Evolution
1) Evolution is just a theory
2) Gaps in the fossil record disapprove evolution
oEvolution shows trends
3) Evolution and religion are incompatible
4) Evolution is a theory in crisis
Origins and Dispersal of Homo sapiens
Multiregional Hypothesis
- based on morphology
- H. erectus out of Africa by ~ 1.25 mya
- Populations interbreeding
oLinked by gene flow
- Single hominid species since then
- Modern populations arose from ancient local lineages
Replacement Model
- recent African evolution model
- based on DNA
- local
- modern humans evolve & leave Africa ~50 kya
1. genetic drift
2. founder effect – sample of small population as a limited selection of
genes and having them start a new population
- local H. erectus populations replaced
Assimilation Model
- modern humans evolve and leave Africa 100-200 kya
- H. erectus and H. sapiens populations interbreeding
- Gene flow did occur between migrating Africans and native residents locally
- Skull: smaller forehead, bulging at back
- body proportions: bulky & short
- noses: 1/3 larger
- adaptation to cold climate (glacial period)
- cranium reflects using teeth a lot
- isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of
glacial climates
- combination of all 3
- 60% of Neanderthal genome sequenced
- 1-4% of nuclear DNA is shared
- all models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa
- new fossil discoveries permit revised/new interpretations
- new DNA evidence suggests that we have a little bit of Neanderthal in all of us
- debate centers on timing and process
How Humans are Transforming the Earth – Contemporary Global Trends
Pessimists vs. Optimists
- Doomsday Model
- Logic of growth model
- technology, modernity and economic growth will solve our problems
Contribution of Anthropology
- holistic approach
- understanding relationship between humans and their environment, past and
- Example: zoonoses
- Impact on biodiversity
oDecrease biodiversity, increase in risk of disease
Environmental Trends
- myth of the “ecological noble savage”
- we have been modifying/damaging the environment for a long time (small scale)
- Modern humans – happening on a larger scale
Green Revolution
- began after WW2
- new high yield crop varieties, fertilizers, pesticides and mechanized equipment
- increased proportion of nutrients went into food
oWorld grain supplies increased 3x
oCountries that had regular famines prior to GR now had grain reserves in
supply for lean years
oGoal: increase production to end world hunger
oTechnology not spread easily
oMany subsistence farmers can afford to buy seeds, fertilizers or equipment
oAfrica benefited least
oFailed to address unequal access to food and food producing resources
- Most number of hungry people = Asia and the Pacific
oNeglect of nutrition by government
oWorldwide economic crisis
oSignificant increase of food prices
Mechanized Agriculture and the “Green Revolution”
- crop rotation
- natural and chemical fertilizers
- commercial seed production
- winter feeding (animals)
- improved transportation
- environment degradation
- nitrogen leaches into ground water
- loss of species variety  monoculture
- loss of indigenous agricultural knowledge
olong term local trends
- pollution: CO2 emissions
Jeremy Jackson
- ocean was clear in 1960’s
ocould take black and white film photos
- plant that eats all bottom feeders in the ocean
- nothing to eat the planktin
Hans Rolsling
- 1 billion: industrialized population
- 2 billion: developing population
Loss of Biodiversity
- genetic and biological variation within and between species
- many species still undiscovered
-¼ of all prescription drugs come from plants
- decreased biodiversity can lead to increase infectious disease
- Hanta Virus, West Nile Virus
Contribution of Anthropology
- investigate local situations in relation to global issues
- holistic approach
oput findings into larger study
- put findings into larger context
- model of sustainability