Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
McMaster (50,000)
ANTHROP (2,000)
ANTHROP 1AA3 (1,000)
Lecture 2

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Zoonosis


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Andrew Wade
Lecture
2

Page:
of 3
Human Origins & Interactions
Misconceptions About Evolution
1) Evolution is just a theory
2) Gaps in the fossil record disapprove evolution
oEvolution shows trends
3) Evolution and religion are incompatible
4) Evolution is a theory in crisis
Origins and Dispersal of Homo sapiens
Multiregional Hypothesis
- based on morphology
- H. erectus out of Africa by ~ 1.25 mya
- Populations interbreeding
oLinked by gene flow
- Single hominid species since then
- Modern populations arose from ancient local lineages
Replacement Model
- recent African evolution model
- based on DNA
- local
- modern humans evolve & leave Africa ~50 kya
1. genetic drift
2. founder effect – sample of small population as a limited selection of
genes and having them start a new population
- local H. erectus populations replaced
Assimilation Model
- modern humans evolve and leave Africa 100-200 kya
- H. erectus and H. sapiens populations interbreeding
- Gene flow did occur between migrating Africans and native residents locally
Neanderthals
- Skull: smaller forehead, bulging at back
- body proportions: bulky & short
- noses: 1/3 larger
- adaptation to cold climate (glacial period)
- cranium reflects using teeth a lot
- isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of
glacial climates
- combination of all 3
- 60% of Neanderthal genome sequenced
- 1-4% of nuclear DNA is shared
- all models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa
- new fossil discoveries permit revised/new interpretations
- new DNA evidence suggests that we have a little bit of Neanderthal in all of us
- debate centers on timing and process
How Humans are Transforming the Earth – Contemporary Global Trends
Pessimists vs. Optimists
Pessimists
- Doomsday Model
Optimists
- Logic of growth model
- technology, modernity and economic growth will solve our problems
Contribution of Anthropology
- holistic approach
- understanding relationship between humans and their environment, past and
present
- Example: zoonoses
- Impact on biodiversity
oDecrease biodiversity, increase in risk of disease
Environmental Trends
- myth of the “ecological noble savage”
- we have been modifying/damaging the environment for a long time (small scale)
- Modern humans – happening on a larger scale
Green Revolution
- began after WW2
- new high yield crop varieties, fertilizers, pesticides and mechanized equipment
- increased proportion of nutrients went into food
- PROS
oWorld grain supplies increased 3x
oCountries that had regular famines prior to GR now had grain reserves in
supply for lean years
oGoal: increase production to end world hunger
- CONS
oTechnology not spread easily
oMany subsistence farmers can afford to buy seeds, fertilizers or equipment
oAfrica benefited least
oFailed to address unequal access to food and food producing resources
- Most number of hungry people = Asia and the Pacific
oNeglect of nutrition by government
oWorldwide economic crisis
oSignificant increase of food prices
Mechanized Agriculture and the “Green Revolution”
- crop rotation
- natural and chemical fertilizers
- commercial seed production
- winter feeding (animals)
- improved transportation
Costs
- environment degradation
- nitrogen leaches into ground water
- loss of species variety  monoculture
- loss of indigenous agricultural knowledge
olong term local trends
- pollution: CO2 emissions
Jeremy Jackson
- ocean was clear in 1960’s
ocould take black and white film photos
- plant that eats all bottom feeders in the ocean
- nothing to eat the planktin
Hans Rolsling
- 1 billion: industrialized population
- 2 billion: developing population
Loss of Biodiversity
- genetic and biological variation within and between species
- many species still undiscovered
-¼ of all prescription drugs come from plants
- decreased biodiversity can lead to increase infectious disease
- Hanta Virus, West Nile Virus
Contribution of Anthropology
- investigate local situations in relation to global issues
- holistic approach
oput findings into larger study
- put findings into larger context
- model of sustainability