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Lecture 21

ANTHROP 3HI3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Hierarchical Database Model, Shyness, Tenseness

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Priscilla Medeiros

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Nov 10 Eysenck’s PEN Theory
- Hierarchical model
- Habits are repeated cognitions
- Intercorrelated habits reflect underlying traits in an individual
- Intercorrelations between traits are called factors
- Traits are built in
- Factors are biologically determined
- Habits are largely a function of experience and learning the acquisition on
behaviors and habits are based on reward/punishment/environmental
experiences, BUT this learning is based on biological bases of personality
because our genetics determine what environments we put ourselves into
Eysencks PEN Dimensions
- Extraversion-introversion
o Sociability
o Activity
o Assertiveness
o Sensation-seeking
o Dominance
o Venturesome-ness
o Carefree-ness
o High scores reflect extraversion and low scores reflect introversion
- Neuroticism-stability
o NOT correlated with extraversion-introversion
o Anxiousness
o Depression
o Low self-esteem
o Shyness
o Moodiness
o Tenseness
o Irrationality
o Emotionality
- Psychoticism-ego control
o Derived from a prison population
o Aggressiveness
o Coldness
o Egocentricity
o Impulsivity
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o Antisociality
o Unempathetic
o Tough-mindedness
o Creativity
- Stable extravert: sanguine personality
- Neurotic extravert: choleric personality
- Stable introvert: phlegmatic personality
- Neurotic introvert: melancholic personality
Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)
- Measures only extraversion, neuroticism
- 57 questions:
o Do you prefer to have few but special friends?
o Do other people think of you as very lively?
o Do you get attacks of shaking or trembling?
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
- Measures all factors
- 90 items:
o Do you enjoy hurting people you love?
o Do you worry a lot about catching diseases?
o Would it upset you to see a child or animal suffer?
What makes someone more or less emotionally stable?
- Extraversion-introversion is based on cortical arousal (electrical activity
going on in the brain)
- Inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and performance
- Arousal and efficiency graph: optimal level of arousal is moderate, and high
and low arousal is below the optimal level of cognitive efficiency
- Extravert cortex is chronically under-aroused
o RAS (reticular formation) is responsible for controlling the arousal of
the cortex
o RAS sends too few impulses for the extravert
o Active, sensation-seeking, impulsive extravert seeks to increase the
amount of arousal in the cortex
o In the extraverted brain, the response to stimulation in the brain is
slower to develop than in the introverted brain
o Excitation develops slowly, and is weak, reactive inhibition develops
quickly, and is strong
o Prone to psychological disorders: Hysterical/somatic symptoms,
antisocial-psychopathic behaviors
- Introverts have the opposite problem
o Highly active RAS sending many more impulses than necessary
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o Introvert is chronically over-aroused shyness/keeping quiet is an
attempt to compensate for a heightened amount of cortical activity
o Excitation develops quickly, and is strong, reactive inhibition develops
slowly, and is weak
o Prone to psychological disorders: Anxiety/phobias, obsessive-
compulsive behavior
Research findings regarding E-I scale
- Introverts: faster pupillary constriction and slower dilation to visual stimuli
- Extroverts: require lower levels of sedation to reach sedation threshold
- Introverts: prefer lower levels of stimulation when learning
- Extroverts: higher pain tolerance than introverts
- Introverts: learn more quickly, forget more slowly
Neuroticism-stability dimension
- Has to do with reactivity
- Highly stable individuals: no emotional response; need high magnitudes of
stimuli to generate a small emotional response
- Highly neurotic individuals: have a low threshold of arousal, and emotional
events are more likely to produce a LARGE emotional response
- Associated with HIGH levels of testosterone
- Associated with LOW levels of MAO (monoamine oxidase breaks down
neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine)
o MAO levels negatively correlated with impulsivity
o MAO levels negativity correlated with aggressiveness
Nov 11 Factor Analytic Trait Theories
- Two traits would be highly intercorrelated if they are measuring the same
thing there is some underlying factor that causes two traits to be correlated
with each other
- Looking at a correlation matrix, if you imagine the existence of a number of
factors that account for patterns of intercorrelations, what would they be?
What factor analysis does
- Does NOT find real things
o Invention (not based on mathematical analysis, more finding logical
correlates; hypothesizing existence of some internal factors)
- Does NOT identify factors
o Just finds intercorrelations
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