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Oct.25 - 2B03.docx

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Laura Parker

Oct. 25 – 2B03 25/10/2011 9:32:00 AM Energy Source: Hydrogen Fusion p-p chain  Sun’s energy result of nuclear fusion in its centre.  H into He – pp chain. o Helium individually less than 4 Hydrogens -> energy off. o 4.3 milion tonnes per sec -> our sun.  Over time, He builds up in the centre (Helium ash).  Non-burning envelope – vast majority of the star. As t increases, heavier elements form. Carbon ash forms (carbon core in the centre).  End product of fusion results from mass of star.  Mass (relative stars) increases, results in heavier elements forming. o Our sun -> carbon. Final stages  2) Outer layers fall off (g not too strong).  Planetary nebula – bad name (historically contingent). Burn H, He ( burning He )makes them large), then start forming C. White dwarf it the result. Protostar –> Star (main sequence [H to He] g-type star) -> Red giant -> White dwarf. Red giant – fucking massive.  Burning He now (temp higher) -> pressure larger -> larger star.  Red giant – brighter, but surface is cooler (red colouration) -> core is higher though (hot enough to burn He). White drawf is like the remnant at the end (lot of Carbon). Cat’s Eye Nebula picture. In a binary system, white dwarf may take some energy from other star -> may have nuclear burnng again -> special type of supernova (from this type, dark energy observed) Most stars are low mass stars (3% high mass)  Evolutionary differences, between low mass and large mass stars. A teaspoonful of typical white dwarf matter would weigh 5.5 tons on Earth – as much as an elephant.  Nothing this dense on earth, an
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