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Lecture 21

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture 21: 21- Behaviors

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McMaster University
Ben Evans

Bio 1M03 February 29, 2016 Behaviors Behaviors are influenced by genetics and environment (nature and nurture) Fixed action patterns (FAP) - Grey legged goose is an example of an animal that has a FAP - Any round object that is found by the female goose is pulled under her body in order to incubate it - A highly stereotyped innate behavior - Conducted to completion once activated by a sensory cue - Goose sees egg outside nest and retrieves it - Goose completes the same sequence of motions even when egg is removed - Even if the egg is removed, the goose will continue to do the motion, it is because it is an evolutionary adaptation - If there a larger stimulus put in there is a more rigorous movement Stickle backs - Type of fish - Red on the underbelly - If a males sees another male with red underbelly, they attack one another - Only males have red - If males sees a swollen belly, that is not red it will attempt to court it - The males do not want another male to get access to the females, so only he can have children - Fixed action patterns are very important - The males will see the underbelly and it will release different types of behaviors, luring the females into the nest, pokes tail and then goes in and fertilizes it with sperm and waves water to make the process faster - It is the releasing of behaviors that has to occur Optimal foraging behaviors - The cost and benefits must be balances - The energy put out must be balanced by what they get out of it - Learned behaviors - Durable, usually adaptive - Experience based behaviors modification - May be constrained by evolution (genetics) - May improve over time with maturation - Alcoholism is not just one gene is it a multitude of genes Types of Learning - Habituation - Imprinting - Associative learning - Classical conditioning - Operant conditioning - Insight learning - Observational learning Habituation - When chicks are born (marshland) it instinctively ducks down when it feels there is something above it - It ducks in order to hid from potential predators - Over time it learns which are the harmful and then ducks - Learns to distinguish between cues - Learns which are harmful and which are benign - Learns to ignore objects or stimuli which do not have a threat - Mothers can het habituated to the cries, can differentiate between the cry’s Imprinting - The children have imprinted on parents (geese) - The parents protect, feed and take care of young - Good so that the kids follow the parents and not another organism - Imprinting occurs very early on in life, there is a critical period in which this happens - The organisms that get imprinted on are generally parents - Imprinting is observed by a following behavior - Conrad Lorenz, did an experiment where the ducks as soon as they hatched onto his boots rather than the parent and so they associated all the behavior with him - Occurs very early in life Associative learning - Ability of an organism to associate one stimulus with another stimulus Classical conditioning - Pavolv - Dog is exposed to food and it most likely salivated - Associate food with another object and now t
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