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Lecture 27

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture 27: 27- Population Ecology

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Ben Evans

Bio 1M03 March 14, 2016 Population Ecology Population ecology: measures changes in population size, population composition, and identifies the factors that cause these changes - A group of individuals of the same species that occupy at the same time in the same general areas - Utilize the same resources and are affected by similar factors in their environments - Studies how and why the population changes over time - How you would monitor the changes in the population Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their environments Survivorship: is the proportion of offspring produced that survives to a specific age Three types of survivorship curves (age vs. number of survivors) - Plots the relative number in a cohort which are still living at each age - Is a plot of the logarithmic number of survivors versus age - Type 1: high to low survivorship o Survivorship throughout life is high, the majority of individuals approach the maximum lifespan o The curves are flat during early and middle life and drop suddenly as death rates increase among older individuals o Large mammals o Little young o High parental advancement o As they get old survivorship decreases - Type 2: constant survivorship o Most individuals have a relatively constant survivorship over their lifetime o Curves are intermediate with mortality being constant over life span o Constant mortality - Type 3: low to high survivorship o High death rates are seen early in life, with high survivorship after maturity o Curves show very high death rates for the young followed by lower death rates after individuals have survived to a certain age o Curves show very high death rates o Once a threshold age is reached, they will be “fine” they’ll survive o A lot of risk once young How can survivorship curves be used for conservation biology? - The information can be used to put in factors in order to protect it, in its vulnerable stages - Conservation of sea turtles: help to get the young into the ocean once they are hatched (most vulnerable stage) since they can be preyed upon and eaten. Canopy put in place, laws and imprisonment put in place - Life history: how an organism allocates resources to reproduction, growth and other activities associated with
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