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Kim Dej

October 25 , 2012 Biology 2F03: Applied and Fundamental Ecology Exploitation (2) Anatomy of Lotka-Volterra equations - for prey species:  rate of prey (or host) population, N, change:  prey per capita rate of increase  equals the exponential rate of increase by prey population  minus p – the number killed by 1 predator  p = predation rate  number of prey (host) - for predator:   rate of predator (or parasite) population, N, change  equals the rate, cp, at which prey are converted to predators (offspring)  minus the number of predator death  d=predator death rate  host to predator conversion rate; analog of r Graphical view of Lotka-Volterra model - isoclines - plot prey and predator against time: when predator increases, prey number declines and vice versa - or each other: cycle - outcome: oscillations in time can be viewed as cycling of two populations - unlikely that they will always follow the same path - add noise the path will widen Question - how one could test the model predictions? - Not easy to obtain - Experimental approach Laboratory populations of host and parasite - parasite that kills beetle - weevil beetle and parasitoid wasp - six years of observations 112 generations - reciprocal fluctuations with delay (even with no climatic impacts) Refuges and persistence of predator-prey oscillation - paramecium and didinium: in the absence of refuges and immigration - with a refuge, prey persists, predator loses - with immigration, both persist and oscillate - can this be produced without human intervention Environmental complexity and oscillations - migration made to rely on the animals without human intervention - 120 oranges, jelly barriers, partially protected from predators, prey can ‘fly’ - two regular cycles - immigration due to the fact that the p
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