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Bridget O' Shaughnessy

Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 1 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 Chapter 10: Language Speech and Comprehension • Psycholinguistics: branch of psychology devoted to study verbal behaviour. Speech is social, it is learned and used in interaction with others. • We extract words from a stream of speech. • Our auditory systems recognize patterns underlying speech. • Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad: used fMRI scans to find that some regions of the brain responded more to human vocalizations rather than just other natural sounds. Left hemisphere showed larger contrast and thus, it plays a larger role in analyzing speech. • Phonemes: elements (smallest units) of speech. Eg: pin is three phonemes “/p/+/i/+/n/”. o Voice-onset time: a way in which we discriminate among phonemes. It is the delay between the initial consonant sound and vibrating vocal chords (voicing). Eg: there is a delay in voicing for “pa” compared to “ba” although the initial sound (made with the mouth) is the same. o Phonemic discriminations initially occur in both hemispheres. Some areas of the brain in the left hemisphere respond solely to intelligible speech even if it is highly distorted. o Our ability to recognize highly distorted speech supports that our perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it (Ganong). We recognize speech sounds in larger chunks such as syllables. • Sanders, Newport, and Neville: played a continuous string of nonsense syllables to listeners. Chunks of this stream were given to participants to study as words. When the string was played once again the N100 response (electrical signal that occurs when a word is first recognized) showed up. • Context affects word perception through top-down processing. • Syntax/grammar: all languages follow certain principles called syntactical rules: grammatical rules for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. o Syntax is learned implicitly and is automatic. Involves different brain mechanisms than learning word meanings. o Syntactical clues are designed by:  Word order: tell us who does what do whom (in English), for example “A Xs the B”: A does something to B.  Word class: grammatical categories such as noun and verb. • Function words: adds little meaning but conveys important information about the sentence’s structure Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 2 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 such as prepositions and articles. When they are omitted, we can often guess at function words. • Content words: express meaning such as nouns and verbs. • Content words express meaning and function words express the relationships between the content words.  Affixes: Sounds we add to beginning (prefix) or ends (suffix) of words. Adding affixes to nonsense words make them seems more like sentences (Epstein).  Semantics: the meaning represented by words.  Prosody: using changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech. Important for emotion. In writing, syntactical clues and interfere with prosody producing brain activity similar to that of unexpected experiences. • Syntax is necessary but not sufficient for semantics. Things can make syntactical sense but we may not extract meaning from it. Likewise, semantics requires syntax for the entire picture. • We remember what is meant in sentences but quickly forget their form. Chomsky (linguist) suggested a model: o Deep structure is the essential meanings of a sentence. It is converted to speech by adding surface structure (grammatical features). o This model is not generally accepted by psychologists. • Aphasia: loss of language, recognition or comprehension or both. o Conduction aphasia: difficulty repeating words and phrases, but they are comprehended. Retain deep structure but not surface structure. • Pragmatics is knowledge of the world. Used in conversations and is involved in speech comprehension. Scripts: characteristics of typical situations that assist in comprehending a verbal discourse. A conversation can bring up certain scripts in the listener so the speaker can convey information without all the gritty details. • Areas important for speech: o Broca’s area: motor association cortex in left frontal lobe. Speech production occurs here. Sign language users also show activity in this area, meaning it is for more than just speech production.  Damage here (extending to underlying white matter) causes Broca’s aphasia which involves severe difficulty articulating words, especially function words. • Agrammatism: inability to properly use or comprehend function words and grammatical features. • Comprehension of word order, for example, is affected in Broca’s aphasia. Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 3 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Deficit in comprehension parallels their deficit in production (grammatical and syntactical loss)  Wernicke suggested that Broca’s area contains memories of sequences of muscle movements needed to articulate words. Broca’s area is located just in front of the primary motor cortex. o Wernicke’s area: upper part of the left temporal lobe, involved in the recognition of speech.  Wernicke’s aphasia: • Damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex that includes Wernicke’s area. Causes deficits in perception of speech and producing fluent but meaningless speech and lack of content words. • Show poor comprehension, disorder known as receptive aphasia, inability to convert thoughts into words, and inability to recognize spoken words. o Recognizing is not the same as comprehending: a word for which there is no learned meaning associated can still be recognized.  Pure word deafness: Damage restricted to Wernicke’s area. Inability to comprehend the meaning of heard speech (can still read lips and writing) but one can still hear, speak properly, and write. Can recognize emotions conveyed through prosody but not what is being said.  Isolation aphasia: damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex that spares Wernicke’s area (area that surrounds Wernicke’s area is the posterior language area). Similar to Wernicke’s aphasia yet they can recognize and repeat words.  Posterior language area is responsible for word meanings. • Sounds of words recognized in Wernicke’s area, passed onto Broca’s area so they can be repeated. • fMRI and PET Studies on word recognition and production: o Broca’s aphasia patients show low activity in the lower left frontal lobe. Wernicke’s aphasia shows low activity in the temporal/parietal area of the brain. o Listening passively to a list of nouns activates the primary auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area. Repeating the nouns activates primary motor cortex and Broca’s area. • Semantics: the meaning of a word. Defined by the particular memories associated with the word. o Memories not stored in primary speech areas, but in other parts of the brain such as the association cortex. Different memories of one word Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 4 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 can be stored in different areas of the brain but they are somehow activated and linked together. Reading • Saccades: rapid jumps of the eyes as we read. Fixations occur between saccades and are where visual information is gathered. Good readers’ saccades are only in the forward direction. o Most time is spent fixating on content words. It takes longer to recognize and understand unusual words and longer words. • Two ways to recognize words: o Phonetic reading: Decoding a word by sounding it out, the phonetic significance. o Whole-word reading: recognizing a word as a whole without decoding it phonetically. o When we read, each way occurs simultaneously and one recognizes the word first. o Whole-word recognition is necessary in English with complex pronunciation rules. o Phonology: relation between letters and sounds. • Dyslexia: translated to mean “faulty readying”. o Acquired (through brain damage) or developmental (discovered when a child is learning how to read). o Acquired dyslexias:  Surface dyslexia: deficit in whole-word reading so that words must be sounded out phonetically.  Phonological dyslexia: opposite problem as surface dyslexia, deficit in phonetic reading and so have difficulty with unfamiliar words.  These two types of dyslexia provide evidence that whole-word reading and phonetic reading involve different brain mechanisms.  Direct dyslexia: deficit in understanding the meaning from read words. They can read them, however.  Developmental dyslexia symptoms resemble those of acquired dyslexias. Abnormal development in the left hemisphere occurs.  Dyslexics use both Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas but they may lack the ability to combine information from these two areas. • Meanings of content words involve sensory memories (Eg: olfactory and visual memories). These are distributed throughout the brain. • Abstract content words are first understood as adjectives associated to something concrete (Eg: an honest lawyer). Prepositions (under, through, over, etc.) are represented by images of objects in relation to each other. Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 5 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Semantic priming: facilitating effect on recognition of words having meanings related to a previously presented word. Activation of a word spreads through circuits denoting related concepts. Memories are linked according to our experience regarding concept relationships. o Some neural circuits recognize the visual form of words while related ones encode their properties and various aspects of the words’ meanings. • Zola: o Shorter fixations on the word “popcorn” while reading if it is preceded by the word “buttered” (other than another unrelated word such as “adequate”). • While reading we develop a mental model of what the text is describing. Glenberg, Meyer and Lindem: presented reader with narrative in which a man takes off or puts on a sweatshirt. The reader’s reaction time the flashed word “sweatshirt” was faster if the jogger put on the sweatshirt. The word detector for “sweatshirt” was primed. Language Acquisition by Children • Some learning of language takes place prenatally, with a newborn preferring hearing the sound of their mothers. • To study the sounds that a young infant can perceive, psychologists measure the sucking rate of an infant on an artificial nipple, with novel sounds increasing the sucking rate. • Prespeech sounds include crying (to obtain something in need from caregivers) and at about one month, “cooing”. • Six months: babbling reflects adult speech patterns. Show evidence of long- term memory. • Native speakers learn not to distinguish between slight variations in their language. They do not hear these differences. To Japanese, there is no difference between the English /l/ and /r/ phonemes. This learning of not to hear these differences occurs at six months, while they can still tell slight differences in sounds they have never heard (Eg: novel vowel sounds). o Even before infants could understand the meaning of the words, their perceptual mechanisms are shaped by the speech around them. o Learning language involves becoming less discriminative of speech sounds, a form of tuning to one’s native language. • Cheour: found the brain showed special changes when a native vowel sound was changed to another native vowel sound, but these special changes did not occur when it was changed to a non-native vowel sound. • Protowords: infant invent unique strings of phoneme and use them as a word, repetitively. Uses the phonemes from babbling. Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 6 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Children recognize sounds in adult speech before they can actually produce them. • 18-20 months two words are put together. These are consistent across all cultures and words are put together in the same ways. Even deaf children put them together the same way. • Children’s speech follows a universal grammar across cultures and follows different rules than adult speech. • Child-directed speech: adults talk to children differently, in a way that facilitates learning. Tends to refer to directly tangible object the child can see and touch. Only when child is attentive. Children learn words for things they interact with first (Eg: “blanket” before “wall”) • First words children use are content words. Inflexions (change in word to denote a tense, amount, etc.) are added (usually a suffix). Rules are not explicit and acquired through listening. • Irregular verb use is learned correctly first, then messed up when children learn to add “-ed” to past tense verbs. It is not corrected for several years. • Combining nouns (Eg: police car) occurs at 3 years. • When learning meanings of words a single pairing does not provide enough information for an accurate generalization of meaning: o Overextension: using a word to denote a larger class of items than appropriate (Eg: saying the moon is a ball). o Underextension: using a word to denote a smaller class of items than appropriate (Eg: only one animal is a dog). Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Idea • The rules of universal grammar are already in the brain. • 4 components of the cognitive structures of language acquisition (Pinker): o Children make and test hypotheses about grammatical rules. o An innate LAD guides this hypothesis formation. There are some things they will never utter.  Language universals: characteristics features shared by all languages, such as expressing plurals or possession. These may just be a reflection of the realities of the world, not actually due to a LAD. o A LAD makes reinforcement unnecessary and provides motivation to learn language.  Contrary to Pinker, children do not learn language they just overhear. They require some form of instruction. o There is a critical period for language learning, early childhood.  The earlier the better. This does not prove a cause-effect relationship with age. There are more factors linked to age that are in question. Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 7 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • A LAD does exist, since we can learn language, but its characteristics are debated, as seen above. • Musso: only real language triggered activity in Broca’s area. Artificial grammar created unspecific brain activity. Communication with Other Primate Species • Sign language can be learned by chimpanzees. They lack vocal apparatus to produce speech. • When learning, they show development of typical children such as two-word stages, overextensions, and correct generalizations. • Can be taught to use symbols (blue plastic triangle means “apple”) • A chimpanzee named Kanzi often tried to respond with his voice. He was tested to have the communicative abilities of a young child. • Most successful attempts were when the animal and trainer had established a close relationship. • Primates will teach learned signs to their offspring. Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking • Intelligence: ability to learn, remember information, recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply information to behaviour in an adaptive way. Its definition depends on cultural judgements. • Studying intelligence has 3 major approaches: o Differential approach: creating tests to measure differences in how people solve problems; o Developmental approach: based on the way children learn to think about the world; and the o Information Processing Approach: focuses the types of skills people use to solve problems. Theories of Intelligence • Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: intelligence determined by 2 factors o g factor: general factor, common to all intellectual tasks. “Three qualitative principles of cognition”: apprehension of experience, education of relations, and education of correlates. o s factor: specific to a particular task. o Empirical evidence for this theory comes from correlations between tests of particular intellectual abilities. Factor analysis is a statistical procedure identifying common factors among groups of tests. Each common factor would be a specific ability. o Factor loadings: how strong one test is related to a particular factor. • Factor analysis can only bring to light intellectual abilities which the basic tests are able to measure. Email UT[email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 8 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Thunderstone extracted seven factors of intelligence, which were then found to include a second-order factor similar to Spearman’s general intelligence. • Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis on Spearman’s work and two major factors. o Fluid intelligence (gf): culture-free tasks, seeing relations and patterns. o Crystallized intelligence (gc): acquired information from a culture, learned in school. o If left to the same experience, one with more g dfvelops more g . c Crystallized intelligence depends on fluid intelligence to be acquired. • Information-Processing Approach Theory of Intelligence: Sternberg`s Triarchic (rule of three) Theory of intelligence. Managing individual`s combination of strengths and weaknesses lead to success in life. o Three parts together comprise Sternberg’s “Successful intelligence”: ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses. o 1) Analytical intelligence: mental mechanisms used to execute tasks. Three functions:  Meta-components: deciding a strategy for solving the problem;  Performance components: processes used to solve it; and  Knowledge acquisition components: used to gain knowledge and integrating it which what they already know. o 2) Creative intelligence: dealing effectively with novel situations and applying previous knowledge. Automating problem solving. Sternberg said that fluid intelligence is used when tasks demand new approaches, otherwise crystallized is used to automate the solution. o 3) Practical intelligence: reflect our behaviours that were subject to natural selection, three forms:  Adaptation: how to plug oneself into an environment to best develop useful skills;  Selection: ability to find one’s own niche in the environment (Eg: finding a career they find uniquely interesting); and  Shaping: changing the environment to find a niche (Eg: starting their own business). • Supporting evidence of different factors of intelligence: damage to frontal lobes does not lower IQ, but it impairs the ability to plan and live normally. • Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence: Gardner’s theory that intelligences are potentials that may be activated in an individual to the extent which their culture values the expression of these potentials. Evidence is that different areas of brain damage affect different abilities. Eight of Gardner’s intelligences: o Verbal-linguistic intelligence o Logical-mathematical intelligence o Visual-spatial intelligence Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 9 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 o Naturalist intelligence: similar to Sternberg’s adaptation practical intelligence. o The rest of them have not been recognized by psychology as distinct. • Gardner’s theory recognizes the view of intelligence held by non-Western cultures. • Unschooled people are unable to solve syllogisms (logical constructions with a major and minor premise, the premises are assumed true and the conclusion is evaluated on the basis of the premises). They approach problems different, Eg: based on personal experience. Intelligence Testing • Galton: intellectual abilities are heritable. • Binet-Simon Scale: intelligence test that was the precursor of the Stanford- Binet Scale. o Norms: data concerning comparison groups, allows individuals to be assessed relative to his or her pears. o Mental age: level of intellectual development that can be expected from an average child of particular age. • Stanford-Binet Scale: intelligence test, various tasks grouped according to mental age, provides a standard measure of IQ. • Intelligence Quotient (IQ): a single measure of general intelligence, mental age (test scores) divided by chronological age (actual, calendar age) times 100. This is the same as the “ratio IQ”. • Deviation IQ: modern way of calculating IQ. Compares an individual’s test scores with those of other’s of the same age. • Wechsler’s tests: o Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): contains tests divided into categories of verbal and performance. Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was developed for children from the WAIS. • Reliability of intelligence tests is how often the same person achieves the same score on the test. • Validity of intelligence tests is assessed by the correlation of test scores and the criterion (another measure of the variable being assessed, for example, self-reporting). • IQ correlates strongly with school performance, about .50. • It is difficult to formulate bias-free tests of IQ. Different backgrounds and cultures are exposed to different vocabularies and different emphasises are placed on different skills. Score differences may be cultural, not intellectual. • Self-fulfilling prophecy phenomena: one’s expectations about what will happen lead them to act so that the expectations come true. Parent’s knowing a child has a low IQ score may affect his or her development. • IQ tests help detect specific learning needs in otherwise bright children. Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 10 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Mental retardation: below-normal mental development caused by injury or abnormal development. There are 4 degrees: o Profound mental retardation: most severe, IQ below 20. Require total supervision. o Severe mental retardation: IQ from 20-34, almost always need total supervision. o Moderate mental retardation: IQ from 35 to 54, can live semi- independently. o Mild mental retardation: IQ from 55 to 70, able to live independently and maintain employment. The Roles of Heredity and Environment • Heritability: a statistical measure, expresses how much variability of a particular trait in a particular population is a result of genetic differences. It measures relative contributions and differences in genes and differences in the environment to the overall variability. o If there are no differences in a trait, there is no heritability. Not the same as genetic influence. o Heritability refers to a population, not individuals. o Heritability depends on the amount of variability of genetic factors in a population. Mixed communities of Western societies therefore have higher heritability measures. o The relative importance of environmental factors depends on the degree of EV (environmental variability). Same idea as above, but regarding environment. o Heritability is affected by the extent which genetic inheritance and the environment interact, Eg: calm classrooms paired with only excitable children and stimulating classrooms paired with only calm children would produce low variability. • Hebb’s two components of the term “intelligence”: o Intelligence A: biological potential for intellectual development. o Intelligence B: what is measured on IQ tests, biological component couple with the environment. • During development, neurons must establish proper connections. It is possible for the human organism to be affected by environmental factors even before they are born. • Harmful prenatal environment factors include physical trauma and toxins (Eg: alcohol). o Fetal alcohol syndrome: smaller infants, facial abnormalities, mental retardation. o Down Syndrome: genetic disorder, not hereditary (improper chromosome division occurs). Email [email protected] for all your exam review needs! Page 11 of 22 PSYA02 Textbook Midterm Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 13 • Types of factors that influence potential intelligence: o Conception: genetic endowment of the person. o Prenatal development: Good nutrition, normal pregnancy without trauma or toxins. o Birth: anoxia (lack of oxygen) or head trauma can lower potential intelligence. o Infancy: good nutrition, stimulating environment for full cognitive development. o Later life: increased chance of dementia or multiple infarcts where there is loss of neurons. Results of Heritability Studies • Correlation between parent and child is the same regardless of upbringing. Genetic similarity is important for the correlation between IQ scores. • Heritability increases with age, people choose their own environments when they are independent. • Specific abilities (Eg: vocabulary) are related to environment. • Race tells us very little about intelligence. American blacks usually tend lower-quality schools than whites. We are measuring performance with tests, not a person’s inherited intellectual ability. Thinking • Thinking is a private event, not all of it involves language. We can think in shapes and images. • We do not consider objects or events independently, we categorize them. A concept is a category of entities that share common attributes. o Formal concept: category of objects define
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