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Graeme Ward

Lecture notes Jan 10th Minoan and Mycenaean Greece: The Bronze Age Periodization of Greece  Minoan Civilization o C. 2700-1600 BCE  Mycenaean Civilization o C. 1900-1200 BCE  Iron Age or “Dark Age” Greece o 1100-776 BCE  Archaic Period o 776-480 BCE  Classical period o 480-323 BCE  Hellenistic Period o 323-31 BCE Sources for Bronze-age Greece  No written Greek sources until at least 7 century BCE-> Homer o Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey o For Greeks, all that before that is prehistory Myth and legend  Physical Record (Archaeology) o Structures, graves o Wall paintings, scripture, painted pottery, tools and weapons o Written records on clay tablets (late bronze age) First “Greek Speakers”  Middle Bronze Age (3000-1600 BCE)?  Indo- European language group o Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Angelo-Saxon, Russian o Eurasian Peoples  Aryan Myth o Invasion into Mediterranean region, domination of local groups Heinrich Schliemann  1871 Discovery of Troy at modern Hissarlik (Turkey) Mycenae  1876 Schliemann discovers shaft graves at Mycenae  Found death mask of Agamenmom Sir Arthur Evans and Crete  1900 o Discovery of the palace at Knossos The Minoans  Named after Minos, King of Crete  2100 BCE o Population boom, development of several urban centers The Minos Palace at Knossos (1700-1200 BCE)  Residential rooms, storehouses, workshops, central courtyard (unwalled) “Palace Culture” of Minoans  Palace acted as administrative/economic center  “Redistributive” economy o Common in Egypt and Near East o Palace and town integrated  Stratified, complex social order o Sharp distinctions in wealth and status  Thalassocracy o Gr. Thalassa (“sea”) and Krtos (“power”)  Colony of Thera (modern Santorini) Linear A and B  C. 1900 BCE Cretan pictography writing o Developed later into more advanced linear script o Preserved on clay tablets in palace at Knossos  Sir Arthur Evans’ Theory o Tablets represent palace records? o Evans finds tablets with more advanced script Decline of Minoans  1600 BCE Massive earthquakes o Vulcanic eruption at Thera  1400 BCE wide-spread destruction of palaces on Crete Mycenaean Civilization  Named after Mycenae  C. 2000 BCE Early Indo-European peoples “move” into Greece  Linear B o Deciphered in 1953 (Michael Ventris and John Chadwick) o Identified as early form of Greek o Alphabet developed from linear A Tombs and Graves…  Schliemann and later archaeologists find many examples around Mycenae of two types of graves: o Shaft Graves o Tholos Tomb  16000-1400 BCE o Weapons, armour, jewellery  Mycenaean elite o Invested in massive tombs and fortification Mycenaean Power: 1400-1200 BCE  Palace at Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns, Thebes o Smaller versions (12?) across mainland Greece  Similarities to palace culture to that of Minoan Crete o Administrative/economic centres o Centralized control over resources and population o Centralized taxation  Differences  Smaller, walled citadels o Cyclopean stone blocks  Replacement of central courtyard with megaron  Megaron Great rectangular hall, central hearth and throne at end  Martial themes in decoration and painting Lions Gate  “twin lions, sons of Atreus” o Agamemnon and Menelaus Mycenaean Greece and the wider world  Mycenaeans fairly minor players o “Ahhiyawa” (“archaeans” in Hittite) o “King of Ahhiyawa” and conflict with “wilusa” (Troy)  Hegamony among Mycenaeans?  No evidence for one dominant king  Extensive trade in E. Mediterranean o Assyrian Empire, Egypt, Hittites in Anatolia (Turkey) o Cities in Syria/ Palestine (Sidon, Tyre, Byblos) Administration and government  Titles o Wanax “king” (religious, military, judicial functions) o Lawagetas “leader of the people” or “war leader”? o Korete/prokorete “district governors” o Quasireu “town Official” o Passireu “king” (later Gr. Basileus)  Administration o Kingdom with central, prominent city/citadel and surrounding lands o Lands divided into provinces o Complex beaucracy o Manufacturing centres (domestic. Export) Social Status  Status rather than class  Sharply divided o Palace officials, managers; producers  Advertisement o Tholoi, chamber tombs o Luxury goods from import o Precious minerals (weapons) Gift exchange  Key method for rulers to acquire prestige, forge diplomatic ties o Circulates precious materials o Hittite king to king of Ahhiyawa o No hard currency, coinage  Gift exchange important for acquiring retainers o Redistributed wealth through gifts; booty from war Warfare  Wonax was a warrior king o Paintings in Mycenaean palaces and sea battles o Nature of grave goods  Recruitment and organization unknown  Tactics unknown  Boar tusk helmet o Bronze plate corselet o Bronze greaves  Myceneaen “warrior vase”  Weapons o Bronze thrusting spears, short swords o Javaelins, bow/arrow, sling  “figure eight” and Tower shield Battle Chariots  Prominent in Near-Eastern warfare  Battle chariot Krater o 1200s BCE  Produced locally  Aristocrat vehicle o Hunting o Transportation? o Combat? Mycenaean Collapse  1250 BCE evidence of drop-off in trade  1200s BCE Mycenaean palaces destroyed one by one  Tiryns, Pylos, Mycenae  Many nearby communities abandoned  Palace system falls apart  Some communities survive but greatly reduced in numbers o Dispersal across local regions Bronze Age collapse  Egypt “the sea peoples” o 1200/1100s BCE o Libyans? o Mycenaean Greeks?  Northern invaders o Dorian Greeks o A Greek dialect or tribe  Sparta o Greek myth of the “Heraclidae” Conclusions  Mycenaean Greece a stateless society o Powerful, yet local kingdoms dominated by palace-citadel o Centralized control over resources, production, population o Contrast from Egypt and Near Eastern states  Post-Collapse o Egypt survives, new Near-Eastern states reform o Greece enters “Dark Age” o Does not re-emerge with states or centralized palace structures o The polis Dark and Early Archaic Greece Lecture 2, Jan 14 th Dark Age Sources  Little material sources until 900 BCE  Homer: Iladd and Odyssey (7 century BCE?) o Epic poems rather than historical documents o Reflective mainly of Homers own age Disruption Vs Continuity  On the one hand, massive changes at outset of Dark age o 1000 BCE population perhaps only 30% of Mycenaean o Demise of palace-citadel system o Great migrations  On the other hand o Palace system collapsed but majority of population moved on o Greek language o Oral culture Greek dialects/Groups  Three biggest linguistic/tribal groups o Dorian’s (Doric) most powerful Greeks o Aeolians (Aeolic) o Ionians (Ionic) Oldest group  Early migrations (1050-900 BCE) Dark age Society  Early Dark Age: o Settlements generally few and small (dozens of inhabitants?) o Palace culture was not understood and did not survive  Quasireu  Letkandi  Island of Euboea  950 BCE  Houses of chiefs  Back room used for feasting?  Seems to include communal storehouse  Dark Age version of megaron? Homer on the Dark Age  Homers Iliad and odyssey written in late dark age  Homeric Basileis o Odysseus “king of Ithaca” o Ajax “king of Salamis”  Basisi of authority of a basileus o Ability to persuade through speech in assembly of warriors  Agora o Martial prowess o Resources o Gifts The Oikos  Oikos o Place that one defines themselves, defines social status o Not just house but “household” o Includes extended family, land, livestock and other property (slaves) o Centre of one’s existence  Economically self-sufficient  Patriarchal o Male father/husband is head of household  Patrilineal o Name and inheritance passes only through male line  Includes extended family, slaves  Economy comes the economia  Father had control over who will marry whom and inheritance  They are patrilineal, passes only through male side The Dark Age Community  Clans were made on common blood and marriage and were very powerful  Larger communities (i.e., towns) rarer  Separate, small settlements liked together through kinship “tribe” or clan (phylē)  Entire people of a region, regardless of family ties, known as laos o Ithacans, Cicones, Athenians  Social status and identity based in this family/clan structure  People in this period were called a laos  Family and clan are paramount  Greek does not exist at this stage Greek Renaissance (900-700 BCE)  Increase in population and trade and commerce o Wine, olives, grain o “Mediterranean Triad”  Rise in population over 200-year period o Rise in agriculture over pastoralism o Plot of landkleros  Problem: o No concurrent increase in landleads to growing disparity  Mediterranean triad (Olives, wine and grain) the 3 things they had  3 things Greece had compared to timbre in abundance  No increase in land but an increase in population causes problems Developed language to write poetry like Homer Panhellenic Sanctuaries and festival  In Olympia contests were held for the gods, Zeus , this is how the Olympics games started  Hellenes (Hellas)  Sanctuary to Zeus and Hera at Olympia o Site in NW Peloponnesus (Southern Greece) o 776 BCE  Sanctuaries of Divine Prophesy o Sanctuary to Apollo at Delphi  First reported games Oracle of Delphi  An Oracle is where someone could go to see if they want divine answers  Pythia (prophetess)  Accompanying priests  Vistor made offerings (kept in treasury),  Oracular Sayings: o Know thyself; Nothing in excess; Curb thy spirit; Observe the limit; Bow before the divine; Keep women in check.  Sacred site of Apollo  Pythia would sit in the temple with gasses and while high would say strange sentences and the priest would interpret her answers Delphi  Became more and more famous site  Mt. Parnassus  Sanctuary and Treasuries  Pythian Games  Various people would treat it as a bank, because of the treasures Delphic Amphictyony  Representatives swore not to destroy the amphinion site  Amphictyony o Early cult association responsible for protection of a sanctuary and its land o First: peoples – Dorians, Ionians, Aeolians, Arcadians o Later: poleis – Sparta, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, etc.  Sacred Wars o Delphic Oath: “not to destroy any city of the amphictyony nor to cut if off from running water, whether in war or in peace, but, if anyone breaks these oaths, to send an army against him and destroy his cities.”  Sense of collectiveness and its very important Forming a Hellenic Identity  Theogamy: where Greeks and humans come from  Religious sites and festivals for all Greeks o Delphi, Olympia  Looking back to the Greek past o Age of Heroes and Trojan War o Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey  Defining “Greekness” o Hesiod’s Theogany o Barbarosterm applied to non-Greeks  Most important words they used were barbarous, term applied to non-Greeks  Forming a sense of what it means to be Greek Archaic Age beginning (7 -6 Century)  Greek colonization  Greek military innovations  Formation of Greek poleis The Colonizing movement  C. 750-500 BCE  Migration from Greek mainland and Aegean  Causes? o Desire to increase trade, acquire more resources?  The Colony o Mother city (metropolis) o Citizens choose site for colony; obtain divine approval (Delphi); appoint leader of colony (oikistes) o Colonists gave up citizenship of metropolis o Greeks are getting involved in trade and want to pull in more resources  Mother city, the metropolis  Expedition would launch and set up a colony  One the colony is set, the colony is its own city Warfare  No more chariots  Decided shift from Mycenaean Warfare o New emphasis on heavily-armoured foot soldiers (infantry)  Hoplite  Equipped primarily in bronze and iron  Emphasis made on Hoplite  Equipped in bronze and iron Equipment  Large thrusting spears  Secondary weapon was a sword  Bronze breastplate, greaves  Equipment will lighten over time  Corinthian Helmet (c. 700 BCE) The Shield  Hoplon  Wooden enforced with bronze  Convex  1m diameter, approx. 7Kg Experience of Hoplite battle  Close quarters The Hoplite Phalanx  If this formation holds you can’t do much, its impenetrable  Chigi Vase (c. 650 BCE, Corinthian)  Heavy armour requires massed-formation  Phalanx o Hoplites are citizen-soldiers o Small land-owners  Wall of bronze and steel  This fighting while effecting requires less training, and money  Increases participation  No one can run forward and show off their own abilities  Have to fight as one group, lower cost of armour  Army that is made of free independent farmers The Polis  An aggregation of households (if not villages) sharing a public space (agora), public cults, and a mixed political constitution within a fixed territory  Competing definitions o City-state? Community of free citizens who share in self-government  Synoecism o “The coming together of houses” o Laos come together to form polis  Share mixed political constitution  Community of free citizens Citizenship and Participation  What is citizenship? o “Having a share in the public life of the polis” o Various grades based on property, free/slave status, place of birth, and gender  Women o Important to public religious activities; barred from political, military, and judicial roles  Men o Unequal division of Civic responsibilities and rights along economic lines  Voting/speaking in assembly, holding office, serving as judges, participating in military campaigns) o Varied from polis to polis  Your level of participation depends  Women were barred from political participation  Slaves are barred from all participation Divisions of Early Polis  Aristocracy o 10-20% of the population o From traditionally powerful, ancient families and clans o Hoi Agathoi (“The Good”) o Hoi Aristoi (“The Best”) o Kratos (“Power”)  The Demos o Lit., “the people” o Further internal divisions  Propertied class of hoplite farmers  Connection between military service and political participation o Means best equipped to run the community o Kratos is the rule of the best  Demos means the people, everyone else  Extension of dark age Laos  Propertied means do you have enough land or wealth to be self-sustaining, these are the farmers  These cities did not supply the military equipment to the army, which is expensive  Military and political participation are intertwined What Direction of Government  Monarchy (rule of one) Only Sparta has this, dual kingship  Oligarchy (rule of few) o More than “a few” o Banding together of traditional aristocracy with rich landowners to dominate magistracies and political deliberation o Includes traditional aristocracy  Democracy (“rule of the demos”) o Equal participation by all male citizens o Later formed at Athens  Traditional wealthy and dominant families  Polis is defined that citizens have a level of participation in their own government Tension and Violence  Stasis: is the Greek word for civil discord and violence o Civil discord or violence between different families or factions in a polis o Often between oligarchs and demos o Resulted in different outcomes  Law-Givers o Typically aristocrats, appointed to reform/create laws designed to reduce stasislessen the influence of families on civic affairs  Results usually in either law givers in which an aristocrats is appointed by the city  Most Greek cities have legendary Tyranny  One person seizes control like a dictator  Problem of Greek oligarchy: weak executive (especially in war) o prone to in-fighting  The answer: an ex-general who takes all or some power from the magistrates, council and assembly and who builds a following a tyrant o Usually an aristocrat himself o War service, marriage alliances  Case Study: Corinth o Dominated by aristocratic clan (Bacchiadae) o 600s BCE Rise of Cypselus  With popular support  They maintain a power informally  He sees power illegally  Tyrants will affect every Greek state th Lecture 3 Jan 17 Sparta Sparta today  Very little remains of Sparta today  It had temples  Foundation of the menelaion remains today  It was consisted of 5 communtties (Synoecism), there was never a great city  It was never walled because the army was too strong Sources on Early Sparta  They do not have a long history of historians  Tyrtaeus o Elegiac poet of 7 century BCE o Probably Spartan (since he was a general)  Herodotus  Xenophon th th o Athenian aristocrat of late 5 , early 4 centuries  Plutarch st o Greek writer of 1 century CE  Herodotus wrote in the classical age of the 5 century  Most sources were Athenian Who are the “Spartans”  They were known as Lacedaemonians  They dwelled in Laconia (Laconic speech)  Spartans come from Spartiates  Full citizen-soldiers of Sparta  They are male citizen soldiers Perioikoi  Means those who live around Sparta  Other communities of Laconia  Perioikoi neither fully autonomous or “subject”  Go to war with Sparta o They represent usually a majority of Spartan army numbers o Hoplites in the Spartan phalanx  Hdt. 7.234 “The other men in Lacedaemon are not the Spartans’ equals, but good soldiers nonetheless  They fought for the Spartans  They were never conquered by Sparta, they provided military assistance  Relationship based on military service and connection with the Spartan king  Most Spartan armies were these people  Most Spartan soldiers were officers Helots of Messenia  They are from Messenia  First Spartan expansion  West, across Taygetus Mountains  Conquered for agriculture and manpower?  Old part of Greece, rich fertile lands  Spartans conquered this land of Messenia  Spartans say they abducted their children and wives so this is why they took the land over Messenian Wars  After 25 years Spartans won  First War: mid-700s BCE? o War of conquest o Result: Messenians have to give up ½ of their crops each year to Sparta  Second War: 685-668 BCE? o Suppression of Rebellion o A long haul, but Messenians finally beaten o Result: war doubles the size and income of Sparta  Sparta became the most powerful in Greece Helots  Helots are the Messenians, they are not slaves o Slaves have no property, can be moved at master’s will, cannot marry  Helots remain on their land o Must give ½ of produce to whatever Spartiate is allotted the land o Sense of regional/ethnic identity: “Messenians”  Occupy unique position In the Spartan world Impact of Helotry?  The Spartan soldiers do not need to farm now  Impact both on domestic and foreign practices  Allows Spartan males to turn to other activities  Spartan army cannot travel too far from home o “Their policy at all times having been governed by the necessity of taking precautions against them.” - Thucydides  ALSO helots often accompanied Spartans on campaign o Carried supplies o Fought in battle  It controls Sparta’s foreign policy  It is a great strength for Sparta  Helots come to accompany the Spartan soldiers to war  They are sometimes archers Lycurgus – “Spartan Law Giver”  He is the oldest of the law givers  We are not sure if he is real, mythical maybe The Rhetra: Mixed Origins  Oldest constitutional document in history  “Constitution” or “Law” of the Spartans o First constitutional document to survive from Archaic age th th  Lycurgus’ own dates unknown (8 -7 centuries?) o After the conquering of Messenia  Did Rhetra come from conscious decision (Lycurgus)?  OR result of long period of reforms?  OR survival of older, Dark age traditions?  Dates are unknown  Sparta continued practices from the Mycenaean age or Dark Age Economy and Land  Used iron bars to barter with other communities  Citizens banned from money-making o No currency at Sparta in Archaic Age  Land in Laconia and Messenia redistributed among Spartiates o To be worked by helots o Remaining land parceled out to perioikoi  Massive surplus of agricultural produce o Could be exchanged to naval powers in return for naval assistance? o City of Corinth (sea power)  Could not buy or sell your land  The state owned all of the land in Sparta  They distributed the land evenly among the people  The currency was all their extra food so they could trade it  Gave it to Corinth (the leading sea power of this age)  Gave the Spartans naval support maybe by exchanging certain naval superpowers Homoioi  Spartan citizen are called “equals”  Spartiates were (in principle) interchangeable in battle o Always infantry (Phalanx hoplites)  Such a system implies minimal cavalry and maximum hoplites  Also implies minimal specialization (siege engineers, archers) o Based in economic decision to ban accumulation of land and capital  No one leaves the line and fight with the same goals  No horses  System was designed to make all the soldiers feel the same Spartan Age Classics  Differentiation comes with age and seniority  Sparta organizes citizen population partly acc. to age classes o Regulates life, obligations, and opportunities for citizens (both as youths and as adults)  Much of Greece moves away from this system, but not Sparta  Sparta says age determines political participation, day to day to life, family, governs most of Spartans society Education  Ancient world had no schools, no state sponsored that  State influence in marriage, sexual intercourse, and child-rearing  Infanticide?  Agogēfor Spartans males aged 7-21 o State-organized education o Emphasize hardiness in shoes/clothing, food o The cheese-stealing ritual  No perioikoi or helots went to the agogēonly for Spartan citizens (future Spartiates)  Sparta had schools, the state education affects how they have sex and their children  Infanticide: if the babies had defects the family would not have the will to raise baby  In Sparta we see a lot of this, they are expected to be able to fight  It was to toughen up kids, cold temperatures, steal food, deal with hunger, tormenting, hardening these individuals  Only citizen male boys go to school Spartan Women  Oracle of Delphi said Spartan women were superior of all other women Syssitia  They sleep, train, and eat here, like an army  Communal mess and sleeping quarters for Spartiates  Men attend at age 21-60  Equality and austerity (the dreaded melas zomos) o Treatment of Helots  PAY YOUR DUES! o Basic food contribution required to maintain one’s place (from allotted farmland)  Life at home? o Women run the oikos and manage the land  Entire male adult life is spent here  They would bring in Helots and get them drunk to entertain them  Helped identify what a Spartan was supposed to be, sober, strong  They need to pay their dues, because everyone is equal  The women manage the farm, and finances  If men want to have sex they need to sneak out of the barracks and sneak back in Political system: Kings  They are powerful, only the kings command the army and no one else  Dual Kingship of two old families o Set apart from other Spartiates  No standard training in the agogē  Considerable Powers o Kings command army on campaign o Kings conducts all public sacrifices o Appointed officials who consulted Delphi o BUT at home, kings dine in public  Under the watch of the citizen body  They appoint officials that can only talk to Delphi  They are not isolated  Shows solidarity, allows the public to gaze at the kings Gerousia  This is an advisory council  Gerousia “Advisory Council”  28 Spartiates (plus two kings), over 60 years of age o Elected when vacancy available due to death/illness  Purpose: Deliberative Body  They deliberated with all matters in Sparta  They each had to be 60 years old and retired from the military  They were war heroes  After death they were appointed by the public Apella  This is the assembly of Spartan citizens  Male citizens of minimum age (i.e., military age)  Purpose: Legislative bo
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