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Lecture #3 (Sep 13).doc

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Jeff Racine

September 13, 2011 Lecture # 3 (Chap 1 & 2 continued…) Odesi • To use at home, log in through lib access at McMaster library website and than try and use it. • Press tools and press choose working directory. Than look for the assignment. Then cut and paste document name “slid….” Into R studio. • Ie of command: mean(wgsal42) Cross Tabulations (Sep 13) • Cross Tabulations: They are tabular summaries for 2 variables. • One variable represented by row heads • The other variable represented by column heads • Information for both variables entered in table cells • In R we use the xtabs ( ) function. Example (Cross Tabulations) • Adapted from Pedhauzur (1997). Suppose that 7 out of 10 males are admitted to an engineering school while 4 out of 10 females are admitted Sex + (Male) -(Female) Graph Types • Core Graphs -Two-dimensional graphs Ex: histograms, scatter diagrams, etc… • Speciality graphs -Combine elements from core graphs to display data in unique ways Ex: bar graphs, pie charts, etc… • 3D graphs -Displays data in 3d information Frequency Histograms September 13, 2011 • Horizontal axis -Identifies upper and lower class limits of data classes • Vertical axis -Shows number of observations in each class (absolute frequencies) -Shows ratio of class frequency to class width (relative frequencies) • Rectangles -Represent corresponding class frequencies by area or by height (if all
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