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Lecture 10

Notesolutions - Geog 1HB3 Lecture 10.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1HB3
Professor
Walter Peace

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Population and Thomas Malthus
10/21/2012 7:51:00 PM
1. Introduction
How are populations of given species affected by changing environmental
conditions?
Example: predator/prey model (hare/lynx)
o As population of prey (hare) increases, the population of predator (lynx) also
increases.
o Then as the population of the predator (lynx) increases, the population of the
prey (hare) will decrease, which, in turn will cause the lynx population to
decrease.
“Feedback mechanism” – forces which result in equilibrium conditions, I.e., numbers
of both predators and prey in keeping with the capacity of the environment.
Question: how do human populations respond to changes in environmental and
cultural conditions?
Possibilities;
o 1. Increase food supply
o 2. Stabilize/decrease populations
o 3. ???
2. Thomas Malthus: “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, 1798
1789 “An Essay on the Principle of Population”
Malthus (1766-1834) clergyman, professor of history and political economy
World population almost 1 billion in 1798
Basic ideas underlying Malthus’ argument:
o (i) Food supply increases in a linear (arithmetic) fashion (1,2,3,4,5…)
o (ii) Population increases in a geometric exponential fashion (1,2,4,16,256,…)
As a result of these assumptions, population growth will ultimately create stress on
the means of subsistence, i.e., population will exceed the carrying capacity of the
environment, resulting in war, vice, and misery (Malthus called these “natural
checks”) that would limit further population increases.
Was Malthus correct?
(i) He could not have foreseen significant increases in food production n 19th and 20th
centuries, i.e., food supply increase was not linear (as he assumed)
(ii) Perhaps (?) the present slowing of population increase is a response to the Earth’s
carrying capacity being reached.
Influence of Malthus “Neo-Malthusians” such as Paul Erlich (“The Population
Bomb”, 1968) and The Club of Rome (“Limits to Growth”, 1972)

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Description
Population and Thomas Malthus 10/21/2012 7:51:00 PM 1. Introduction  How are populations of given species affected by changing environmental conditions?  Example: predator/prey model (hare/lynx) o As population of prey (hare) increases, the population of predator (lynx) also increases. o Then as the population of the predator (lynx) increases, the population of the prey (hare) will decrease, which, in turn will cause the lynx population to decrease.  “Feedback mechanism” – forces which result in equilibrium conditions, I.e., numbers of both predators and prey in keeping with the capacity of the environment.  Question: how do human populations respond to changes in environmental and cultural conditions?  Possibilities; o 1. Increase food supply o 2. Stabilize/decrease populations o 3. ??? 2. Thomas Malthus: “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, 1798  1789 “An Essay on the Principle of Population”  Malthus (1766-1834) – clergyman, professor of history and political economy  World population almost 1 billion in 1798  Basic ideas underlying Malthus’ argument: o (i) Food supply increases in a linear (arithmetic) fashion (1,2,3,4,5…) o (ii) Population increases in a geometric exponential fashion (1,2,4,16,256,…)  As a result of these assumptions, population growth will ultimately create stress on the means of subsistence, i.e., population will exceed the carrying capacity of the environment, resulting in war, vice, and misery (Malthus called these “natural checks”) that would limit further population increases.  Was Malthus correct?
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