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GEOG 2RC3 (90)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9- 2RC3

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School
McMaster University
Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 2RC3
Professor
Walter Peace
Semester
Summer

Description
th Lecture 9: Atlantic Canada May 30 , 2011 Questions:  Why is Atlantic Canada a “downward transitional region”?  What can/ should be done about this? Physical Geography  Geology and Landforms o Northern extension of Appalachian mountains o General alignment of hills/valleys southwest to northeast o Coastal rocks formed in Carboniferous period- coal in Cape Breton o Other mineral resources- nickel, cobalt, copper at Voisey’s Bay, Labrador and offshore oil fields, e.g., Hibernia on Grand Banks o Appalachian Mountain- old, heavily eroded (low relief)  Climate o 3 climate zones (Fig 2.6) in Atlantic Canada- Atlantic, Arctic and Subarctic o Summers- generally cool, wet; winters-short, mild, but heavy snowfall and rain  Fog o Cold Labrador current meets warm Gulf Stream-St. John’s = 120 days of fog/year  Soils o Generally poor, unable to support commercial agriculture (except in Prince Edward Island and Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia)  Question: to what extent has Atlantic Canada’s physical environment contributed to its status as a downward transitional region?  Geology, Physiology, Climate, Soils, Vegetation (Environmental Context)  Economy, Settlement, Demographics and Culture (Human response)  Has Atlantic Canada reached its potential in terms of what environmental conditions permit? The Making of a Hinterland Region (see Atlantic Canada’s Historical Geography pg. 367-373)  Regional economy, mid to late 19 century: o Farms, fishery, forest, commercial shipping  Pre-industrial landscape (era of wood, wind, water for energy, construction and transportation)  Prosperous, yet profoundly local society o 4/5 rural o Absences of major cities (Halifax= imperial outpost) o Newfoundland remains British colony until 1949  Role of external events as determinants of economic growth/development: o Crimean War o Reciprocity Treaty o U.S. Civil War o Cyclical nation of economic growth characterized by alternating periods of expansion and decline, depending on (external) demand for resou
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