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Canada (511,097)
Geography (946)
GEOG 2RC3 (90)

6 Atlantic Canada.docx

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Walter Peace

Atlantic Canada -New Brunswick, PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia -East coast – point of European contact -recent colonial history (especially Newfoundland – joined Confederation in 1949) -changing space relations -19 century – strong regional economy th -20 century – peripheral position in national economy -supply region (hinterland, periphery, downward transitional) -defining characteristics – orientation to the sea -most settlement along the coast -geographical and political fragmentation of this region -<2% of Canada’s area (excluding Labrador) -5.4% of Canada’s area (including Labrador) -7.2% of Canada’s population (2.3 million) -share of Canada’s GDP – 6% -3 CMAs – Halifax, St John’s, St John -population density – 4.9 persons/km -population growth rate less than national average in the postwar era, despite high birth rate -high outmigration post-WWII – high dependency ration (especially in Newfoundland) -most rural Canadian region -lack of economic development -economic structure: -primary – decreasing (cod fishery collapse) -secondary sector – underdevelopment -tertiary sector – greater share than any other region (armed forces) -regional disparity – importance of government intervention (regional development programs, transfer payments) -main characteristics: -sense of place – strong sense of identity within the region -downward transitional region -cultural diversity -slow economic growth -reliance on resources/megaprojects -environmental challenges – cod fishery collapse, Sydney Tar Ponds Physical Geography -northern extension of Appalachian Mountains -general alignment of hills/valleys southwest-northeast -coastal rocks formed in Carboniferous period – coal in Cape Breton -other mineral resources – nickel, cobalt, copper, offshore oil fields -3 climate zones – Atlantic, Subarctic, Arctic -summers – cool, wet -winters – short, mild, but heavy snowfall and rain -fog – cold Labrador Current meets the Gulf Stream -St Johns has fog 120 days of the year -soil is generally poor, unable to support commercial agriculture -except in PEI and Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia The Making of a Hinterland Regionth -regional economy, mid-late 19 century: -farms, fisheries, forestry, commercial shipping -pre-industrial landscape (wood, wind, and water for energy, construction, transportation) -prosperous yet profoundly local society -4/5 rural -absence of major cities (Halifax was an imperial outpost) -Newfoundland remains British colony until 1949 -role of external events as determinants of economic growth/development: -Crimean War -Reciprocity Treaty -US Civil War -cyclical nation of economic growth characterized by altern
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