20th century peripheral position in national economy. Tertiary sector greater share than any other region (armed forces) New brunswick, pei, newfoundland and labrador, nova scotia. Recent colonial history (especially newfoundland joined confederation in 1949) 3 cmas halifax, st john"s, st john. Population growth rate less than national average in the postwar era, despite high birth rate. High outmigration post-wwii high dependency ration (especially in newfoundland) Regional disparity importance of government intervention (regional development programs, transfer payments) Coastal rocks formed in carboniferous period coal in cape breton. Other mineral resources nickel, cobalt, copper, offshore oil fields. Winters short, mild, but heavy snowfall and rain. Fog cold labrador current meets the gulf stream. Soil is generally poor, unable to support commercial agriculture. Pre-industrial landscape (wood, wind, and water for energy, construction, transportation) Absence of major cities (halifax was an imperial outpost) Sense of place strong sense of identity within the region. Environmental challenges cod fishery collapse, sydney tar ponds.