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GEOG 2RC3 Lecture Notes - Tertiary Sector Of The Economy, Sydney Tar Ponds, Crimean War


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2RC3
Professor
Walter Peace

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Atlantic Canada
-New Brunswick, PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia
-East coast point of European contact
-recent colonial history (especially Newfoundland joined Confederation in 1949)
-changing space relations
-19th century strong regional economy
-20th century peripheral position in national economy
-supply region (hinterland, periphery, downward transitional)
-defining characteristics orientation to the sea
-most settlement along the coast
-geographical and political fragmentation of this region
-<2% of Canada’s area (excluding Labrador)
-5.4% of Canada’s area (including Labrador)
-7.2% of Canada’s population (2.3 million)
-share of Canada’s GDP – 6%
-3 CMAs Halifax, St John’s, St John
-population density 4.9 persons/km
-population growth rate less than national average in the postwar era, despite high birth rate
-high outmigration post-WWII high dependency ration (especially in Newfoundland)
-most rural Canadian region
-lack of economic development
-economic structure:
-primary decreasing (cod fishery collapse)
-secondary sector underdevelopment
-tertiary sector greater share than any other region (armed forces)
-regional disparity importance of government intervention (regional development programs, transfer
payments)
-main characteristics:
-sense of place strong sense of identity within the region
-downward transitional region
-cultural diversity
-slow economic growth
-reliance on resources/megaprojects
-environmental challenges cod fishery collapse, Sydney Tar Ponds
Physical Geography
-northern extension of Appalachian Mountains
-general alignment of hills/valleys southwest-northeast
-coastal rocks formed in Carboniferous period coal in Cape Breton
-other mineral resources nickel, cobalt, copper, offshore oil fields
-3 climate zones Atlantic, Subarctic, Arctic
-summers cool, wet
-winters short, mild, but heavy snowfall and rain
-fog cold Labrador Current meets the Gulf Stream
-St Johns has fog 120 days of the year
-soil is generally poor, unable to support commercial agriculture
-except in PEI and Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia
The Making of a Hinterland Region
-regional economy, mid-late 19th century:
-farms, fisheries, forestry, commercial shipping
-pre-industrial landscape (wood, wind, and water for energy, construction, transportation)
-prosperous yet profoundly local society
-4/5 rural
-absence of major cities (Halifax was an imperial outpost)
-Newfoundland remains British colony until 1949
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