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Department
History
Course
HISTORY 2DF3
Professor
Sean Corner
Semester
Winter

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History 1AA3 Lecture 3 – January 11, 2010 Constitutional Compromise October 1789 – July 1792 The work of the National Assembly:  Anti-clerical reforms  Administrative & judicial reforms  Writing a constitution The Political Clubs  Jacobins  King has had enough and flees France in 1791. He is noticed and captured at Varennes. This is not good, the King has shown he is trying to avoid the revolution, unwilling to negotiate.  Many nobles have immigrated outside of France A new Constitution, September 1791  The New Legislative Assembly o During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention.  Rise to prominence of the Jacobins  Continued discontent of the Sans-culottes Attempted Counterrevolution  The Vendee o It is also remembered as the place where the peasants revolted against the Revolutionary government in 1793. They resented the changes imposed on the Roman Catholic Church by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy(1790) and broke into open revolt in defiance of the Revolutionary government's military conscription. A guerrilla war, known as the Revolt in the Vendée, led at the outset by an underground faction called the Chouans(tawny owls), cost more than 100,000 lives before it ended in 1796.  Middle – centrists; right – nobles; left – Jacobins, radicals o All elected  Many peasants are turning against the revolution, nobles getting more and more support from them. The Jacobins getting more support from the working class (sans-culotte).  The centrist want war because it would unite France; left want war because it could spread revolutionary ideas; right wants war because they believe they will lose which will bring things back to normal War with Austria begins, April 1792  Prussia joins war against France  There is opposition/negativity towards revolutionary France  The war goes exceedingly badly for France, the French borders are pushed back and invaded. Sans-culotte, French version The French engraving of a working-class woman with her calm simplicity and playful cat suggests that the French Sans-culotte, British version This ferocious sans-culotte harpy, a creation of wartime England‟s vivid counter-revolutionary imagination, streams more August 1792 – June 1793  Storming of the Tuileries Palace, August 9-10, 1792  Formal arrest of the King for Treason  Abolition of the Legislative Assembly – the Jacobins takeover  Formation of the National Convention - September 20, 1792 o During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly which sat from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (the 4th of Brumaire of the year IV under the French Republican Calendar adopted by the Convention). It held executive power in France during the first years of the French First Republic. It was succeeded by the Directory, commencing 2 November 1795. Prominent members of the original Convention included Maximilien Robespierre of the Jacobin Club, Jean-Paul Marat (affiliated with the Jacobins, though never a formal member), and Georges Danton of the Cordeliers. From 1793 to 1794, executive power was de facto exercised by the Convention's Committee of Public Safety.  France declared a republic (Monarchy abolished), September 21, 1792  National Convention decrees elections to be based on universal suffrage  First victory of the citizen army over Austrian and Prussian troops at Valmy, September 1792  Louix XVI found guilty in a contentious trial and executed in January 1793  Strains of War o France now at war with Austria, Prussia, Britain, Spain and Netherlands  The Law of the Maximum – widely opposed to o General Maximum or The Law of the Maximum was a law created during the course of the French Revolution as an extension of the Law of Suspects on 29 September 1793. Its purpose was to set price limits, deter price gouging, and allow for the continued flow of food supply to the people of France.  The Committee of Public Safety is formed o The Committee of Public Safety created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured July 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4), a stage of the French Revolution. Under war conditions and with national survival seemingly at stake, the Jacobins, under Maximilien Robespierre, centralized denunciations, trials, and executions under the supervision of this committee of first nine and later twelve members. The committee was responsible for thousands of executions, with many high-profile executions at the guillotine, in what was known as the "Reign of Terror." Frenchmen were executed under the pretext of being a supporter of monarchy or opposing the Revolution. The Committee ceased meeting in 1795.  The coup of the Jacobins, June 1793 and completely takeover after the death of Marat, July 1793 The Period of „Terror‟ (July 1793 – July 1794)  Rise of Robespierre, July 1793 – not working for himself, believed that he was there to channel the popular will  Believed that the only the revolution could be saved was to terrorize the population  Law of Suspects o If you are not with us, you are against us o Very difficult to prove innocence o Repression of counter-revolutionaries o The Guillotine comes to symbolize revolutionary justice  Extension of the Law of the Maximum  Remove Christian calendar, new calendar which starts with the beginning of republic (Year 1 – 1792)  Metric system replaces imperial system (weight and measurement)  Abolish slavery  Festival of the Supreme Being o Deism  The End of the „Terror‟ o French military victories o Many people are tired of the revolution (famous one: Danton, a right extremist, was one of them and was declared a counter revolutionist and executed) - eventually turn against the Committee of Public Safety and Robespierre was executed Pulling Back, 1794-1799  The Thermidorian Coup and the Directory  The Executive Directory (French: Directoire exécutif) was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. The period of this regime (2 November 1795 until 10 November 1799), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) era, constitutes the second to last stage of the French Revolution. o The New Constitution o The Perils of Compromise o “A whiff of grapeshot” – 1795, Napoleon fired on the people Summary Analysis of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 Four Phases of the Revolution 1- Liberal Revolution 1789-1792 a. Gov‟t Form: National assembly b. End of the Ancien Regime and remaining feudal privileges c. The „people‟ (mostly middle-class) become important in politics d. Rise of liberal civic values and rights e. Political and administrative reforms i. Liberty – individuals should have equal individual rights 2- Republican Revolution (1792-1793) a. Gov‟t Form: The National Convention b. Formation of a republic and the execution of the King c. National army and the idea of a nation in arms d. Rise of nationalist politics e. Re-centralization of government and administration i. “Fraternity” 3- The Radical Revolution – the Terror a. Gov‟t Form: Committee of Public Safety b. Social democracy; bringing the masses into politics c. Attempted implementation of Rousseau‟s “General Will” d. Radical social experimentation (new calendar; Cult of Supreme Being, etc.) e. Slid into dictatorship and totalitarian democracy i. “Equality” 4- Counter-Revolution – the Thermidorean Reaction 1794-1799 a. Gov‟T Form: The Directory b. General reaction to unrest and instability c. Conservative forces prevail d. But Ancien Regime clearly never to be re-established e. Unpopular politics of compromise paved the way for the rise of Napoleon i. “Reaction” History 1AA3 Lecture 4 – January 13, 2010 Exporting the Revolution? Napoleon and Europe Napoleon‟s Rise to Power, 1799-1802  A Revolutionary General th  Coup of 18 Brumaire  Plebiscites of 1800 and 1802 o Peace of Amiens, 1801 – Napoleon negotiated peace with Britain (France‟s big foe)  Napoleon is a reputable and ruthless general who‟s known by many (popular). He is elected consul for life (99% voted yes for Napoleon). Napoleon Bonaparte – the Individual  Born in Corsica, 1769  Graduated Military College as an Artillery Officer, 1785  Thermodorian Coup, 1795 o The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre, Saint-Just and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. o The name Thermidorian refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when Robespierre and other radical revolutionaries came under concerted attack in the National Convention.Thermidorian Reaction also refers to the remaining period until the National Convention was superseded by the Directory; this is also sometimes called the era of the Thermidorian Convention.  Italian Campaign, 1796-97  Egyptian Campaign, 1799 o Introduces revolutionary ideas into the nations he conquers – idea of liberation is an appealing one The Napoleonic State  The Concordat, 1801 o Agreement with Catholic Church – will not undo the limitation brought on by revolution but will not step into their affairs, i.e., the church will be left alone. This bought Napoleon the support of the church. o Napoleon does not practice religion, he sees it as a tool  Administrative Re-Organization o He keeps what was efficient during the revolution  Tax collection  Napoleon becomes Emperor, 1804 o Massive support from middle-class because he is the classic example of a self-made man o Imperial Propaganda – follows Roman example (e.g. face on coins)  Education Reforms o System of primary and secondary schools – not church o Promising boys are identified early and put into more advanced (secondary) schools to become the lawyers, officers, etc. o Those that don‟t show promise will remain in primary schools  New Aristocracy of Merit: The Legion of Honour o Aristocracy wiped out during revolution; Napoleon establishes a merit system which, well, merits, mostly skilled soldiers/officers, good scientists, good tax collectors, etc.  Civil Code 1804 (Code Napoleon, 1807) o Recognized the exceptional qualities of people o Right of marriage, adoption, divorce, the equal distribution of inheritance among heirs o Prior the revolution, woman expressed their rights through proxys; less and less frequent as the revolution goes – woman rights limited by civil code  Woman not educated – faith/religion/domesticity  Woman need permission from their husbands The Limits of Empire and the Fall of Napoleon  Conquest and re-organization of Europe o Establishment of puppet regimes, namely in Germany and Spain o Prussia and Austria allies with Napoleon after losing battles to him o Fails to defeat the British (cannot match British navy) and the Russian Empire  Battle of Trafalgar, 1805  The French lose a great portion of its naval fleet to the British navy  The Continental System  An attempt to starve the British. The British need trade to maintain its economy. Napoleon wants to establish a trade embargo, threatens to attack any nation that trades with Britain  In 1812, Russia refuses to abide by the continental system and Napoleon is forced to mount a military campaign in Russia  Iberian Campaign, 1808-1812  Russian Campaign, 1812  Sets up a grand army (largest army seen to date, over 600,000 men, most of them not French) to invade Russia – hopes to quickly fight and defeat the Russian army but the Russian keep on retreating and don‟t face Napoleon (scorch earth policy) which causes hardship on Napoleon‟s troop and Russian peasants.  Burning of Moscow, 1812 – still haven‟t faced the Russians yet, hopes the Russians attack him in Moscow but they don‟t so he burns down the city and retreats. While retreating, the Napoleon‟s army is harassed by the Russians, combined with the hardships of winter, his army is decimated.  Retreat to France, 1813-14  Great alliance against France and Napoleon after his defeat in Russia  Defeat, 1814  Napoleon is exiled on an island off the coast of Alba and sent there with a few servants and a guard.  “The 100 Days”  Napoleon manages to escape and goes back to France, and people rally behind him mostly because monarchy has been re-established  Battle of Waterloo, 1815  Final defeat at the hands of an Anglo-Dutch army (and a Prussian army that joins the battle)  Not executed, exiled again in St. Helena where he lives out the rest of his life  Napoleon is a product of the revolution, he was revered for being a self-made man.  Spread ideas across Europe Congress of Vienna & Restoration  Fourth Coalition of Powers  The Congress at Vienna, Sept. 1814-Nov. 1815 o Representative of France was present – had to consult the French, they needed to be part of the decisions (to avoid further problems) - Key People - Castlereagh (Britain) - Metternich (Austria) - Alexander I (Russia) - Talleyrand (France) - Principles 1. No one power should dominate: creates a Balance of Power – adjusts borders/the map 2. Restoration of Legitimate monarchs 3. Containing France – for 15 years France dominated Europe, it took the combined effort of 4 states to bring them down 4. The Creation of a “Concert of Europe” o Successful for the next 100 years o The French had to pay reparations for Napoleon‟s “100 days” and borders pushed back even further as punishment (as they were in 1780 or 90?) o Borders adjusted in the aim to contain the French and as a reward to the victors.  39 German states, Prussian borders extended to reach France (containment/military reasons), Sardinia borders extended to dissuade France from attacking Italy again. Prussians and Russians compromised for Poland‟s territory. Post-1815 Conservatism The Restoration & Conservatism - Monarchy restored but with compromise Edmund Burke (1729-97) Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) - History & tradition the source of political authority - Agreed with American revolution but he did not believe that the French revolution was a good thing. Turning your back on traditions and history like the French were doing was dangerous. He believed that change must be built upon precedent and traditions Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) - God as the ultimate source of all political authority - Believed that going along with revolutionary ideas would create hell on Earth; believed that monarchs had divine right (chosen by God) Metternich (1773-1859) Equilibrium of society maintained by traditional elites - Danger of abstract ideologies – enlightenment could lead to go against God - Karlsbad Decrees, 1819 - Clamping down on students and professors, banning student organizations, etc., to stifle these new ideas The Industrial Revolution: Why was Britain the first to Industrialize? What was different about Britain? th Early 18 C. France was: – just as wealthy as Britain – had a larger population – had a similar empire – had a vibrant intellectual culture But: – resisted changes in agricultural & craft production – French aristocracy not interested in technical and capitalist improvement as were the British – British more willing to risk capital on new ideas – major hindrance in France were internal tariffs which effectively reduced the size of markets and restricted the free flow of goods What conditions were necessary for industrial take-off? Agricultural Revolution – Enclosure  basically means that communal land was progressively fenced off for private use/capital intensive farms – There was resistance to enclosure – Took around 300 years to enclose the majority of Britain – Agricultural Improvements: New Crops – Changing crop rotation system (Lord Charles “Turnip” Townsend (1674-1738)) – Crops in part of field, turnips in other to replenish the nutrients in the soil – New livestock breeding & feeding techniques –Jethro Tull (1674-1741)  came up with the seed drill –Livestock doubled – Agricultural revolution alone not enough to lead to industrial revolution –Led to population surge unparalleled to the rest of the world mainly due to better nutrition th Results of 18 C. Agricultural Revolution – Enough food was available for people in the cities – Crop yield increased – Falling food prices meant more money to spend on consumer goods – Healthier population which meant decline in death rate, especially in infants Population of England doubled from 5 million to nearly 10 million between 1700 and 1801 – Wool yield increased due to better care of animals and selective breeding – More wool was available for the textile industry and at less cost; promoted competition with cotton industry – Ready workforce available • Peasants were thrown-off their land by enclosures • Families moved into the cities • There was much unemployment and many people were looking for work • Labour was cheap¸ • Putting out system, work farms when work was available and worked at home (textiles) when not available - Demographic increase – Mobility of work-force Commercial Vibrancy - Triangle Trade of Atlantic: sending ships to Africa, trading for slaves, sell slaves to America for raw materials, sent back to Europe to manufacture goods which were sold back to America or Africa o Generates tremendous wealth - Mercantile Trade: the Atlantic economy - London: Europe‟s Entrepôt and largest capital market What conditions were necessary for industrial take-off? Population growth due to AR - Demographic increase - Mobility of work-force Geography & transportation network – Natural resources: water, coal & iron ore – Coastline, rivers, canals, turnpikes & roads Society and Culture – Entrepreneurial attitudes; private capital; role of the Government (embraced risk) What triggered Industrial take-off? Revolutionary inventions - Power - Textile machinery for „King Cotton‟ o Cotton becomes the material of choice (wool undies very uncomfortable, cotton way better) Demand: internal and external markets Supply: factory production Revolutionary inventions – John Kay‟s flying shuttle (1733) Increased size and speed of hand looms – James Hargreaves‟ Spinning Jenny (1768) Spun multiple (8) thread of yarn at once •Hills and damp (water-abundant) areas were ideal for industry, i.e., the textile industry – Richard Arkwright‟s Water Frame (1769) Mill (Factory) based Gendered division of labour –Samuel Crompton‟s Spinning Mule (1779) –Edmund Cartwright‟s Power Loom (1785) – Allowed for the beginning of mass-production factories - The British destroyed and took over the world‟s biggest cotton industry, India‟s Why did a change in textile production techniques cause rapid economic change? The steam engine & its applications -Mining & Metal working -Railways & steam shipping The revolution in power James Watt‟s steam engine –Fuel efficient –Light enough to be potentially mobile The application of steam power Factory Production –efficiency  not dependant on anything, wind, water, etc., power available to anyone with coal –economies of scale – Economies of scale, in microeconomics, are the cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion –rationalization of work processes –deskilling – Deskilling is the process by which skilled labor within an industry or economy is eliminated by the introduction of technologies operated by –mobility of labour –Factory Towns – Clocks: now labour forced to work to the clock because machines do. Metalworking - New applications of Iron and Steel; increased demand in components of steel Mining and Metalworking - Increased Coal & Coke production - Steel production spikes around 1806 (about 250000 tons to 3000000) Steam power revolutionizes Transportation - Steam power applied to motion - Railway Pioneers – Richard Trevithick‟s „Steam Carriage‟ 1801 – William Hedley‟s „Puffing Billy‟ 1813 – Stephenson‟s „Locomotion‟ 1825 and „Rocket‟ 1830 What was the transportation revolution? - Rail networks, 1830s – united industrialization with urbanization – created new market demands worldwide – London population upwards to 2.5 million in 1850, by far largest metropolis in the world – Cities size spurred by the rise of the railway network - Steam applied to ships – Charlotte Dundas (1802) – Aaron Manby (1822) – Great Western (1837) – Trans-Atlantic Service 1845 – Much faster, easier shipping Economic Implications of Industrialization - New transportation networks – key to industrial revolution/building railways as fast as possible - New markets – Asia; prior to revolution Europe imported substantially more goods than it exported to Asia, all changes with the industrial revolution – unequal trade - New financial instruments - Capital accumulation: invest in hopes to get money out of the investment; London financial capital of the world, the place to go to borrow money, richest banks, etc. o Creation of limited liability: only assets of the company can be sold to settle a debt, no longer the private assets of the investors. Industrialization Spreads to Europe State Financed Industrial Programs - Railway building launched by Belgian Government, 1830s - German States and France follow suit - Fredrich List (1789-1846), National System of Political Economy (1841) – to unify Germany to catch to Britain, many small states = tariffs, taxes, barriers exist between markets - Tariffs and protective legislation – British favored a free trade system, wanted the whole world to adopt free abolish tariffs. The British government abolished their tariffs on incoming goods but this doesn‟t happen (fear that British would invade/take over economies/industries). Some places (with weak governments) did accept through intimidation (e.g. South America). - Britain eventually loses economic advantage, other countries catch-up Borsig Ironworks  August Borsig, an artisan, founded the Borsig Ironworks in Berlin the 1840s. The factory expanded to meet the needs of the burgeoning rail system connecting the German Confederation. BY the time of Borsig‟s death in 1854, his factory had built 400 locomotives. 19 century New Social Formations  Development of class society – developed slowly throughout 19 century – divided into 3 groups: o Aristocracy (titled/landed elite) – born with power  Wealth and power remained; at the top of society; likely staffed army and government; they invest in 19 century as opposed to the past o Bourgeoisie (urban middle class)  Values: thrift, self-help, industriousness  Growing but never more than 10-15% of the population; not like today  Teaching, medicine, art,…  Because of industrial revolution, the middle class will challenge the aristocracy and by the end of the 19 century, they will start to merge o Proletariat (urban working class)  Divisions: Skilled and unskilled  Artisanal Trades  Factory Workers  Unskilled Labour th  Servants – 19 century is the great age of servants; make-up the largest occupational group; miserable life th o Uneven development, not sweeping change; in 19 century you have fewer artisans and more factory workers (who require no education) o Rural Peasantry & Small Farmers  Remained majority of population to 1900; Europe is still dominated by peasants Urban Life  Paris –Paris was a medieval city, very compact, maze of small streets; areas rebuilt by Haussmann (architect), open, wide boulevards – sanitation main reason for rebuild (sewers – hard to build in a medieval city) – also a military purpose of urban renewal (used to be hand-to-hand combat to quell revolts; now cannons). continued.. January 27, 2010  Vienna: Construction of the Ringstrasse o Take down old medieval walls and put in its place the Ringstrasse, and buildings museums, universities, art galleries, opera houses – in hopes to improve people‟s sophistication Looking at 19 -Century Society through Art and Culture 18 -Century Background  Romanticism  Realism The 18 Century Heritage Impact of the Enlightenment and French Revolution  Rationalism of the philisophes  Order and harmony in nature o To understand this Neo-Classicist Architecture  The Brandenburg Gate (1788-9)  The Pantheon, Paris, 1755-92 o Building trying to evoke the classical past (ancient Rome feel)  Brandenburg Concerto #1(1712)  J.S. Bach (1695-1750) o Classical music as well  All about order, harmony, symmetrical, refinement Romanticism, c. 1780-1850  A reaction to the enlightenment and to rationalism  Primarily an appeal to emotion, sentiments, spirituality and feelings o Romantics wanted to study nature because of its beauty, they didn‟t place humans above nature – to be one with nature o Looked for escape from industrialization Literature  Sturm und Drang  William Wordsworth  Walter Scott – interested in relationship of history to the present  Victor Hugo Romantic Art  “The Polar Sea” 1824  “Wanderer above the mists”1818  “Rain, Steam and Speed” 1844 o Man is a part of nature. Nature can destroy man Political and Social themes in Romantic Art  Liberty Leading the People 1831  The Raft of the Medusa o Scene of a shipwreck, depicts a true event, dumped 150 people on a raft and only 15 people survived. Read as a political indictment of the French monarchy. Also, shows the French pursue a slaving. Man at the mercy of nature. We do not see murder and cannibalism (which occurred). We see grief, terror and hope all in one picture (from left to right). The Rejection of Classicism in Romantic Architecture  Strawberry Hill, 1780s  Westminster Palace, 1840-60  Manchester Town Hall o No longer classical from Roman time. Gothic revival (neo Gothic). Fascination with the medieval age. Romanticism in Music  Symphony No. 5; Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827) o Quite different from the order, symmetrical music, Beethoven all about loud, emotions, they want the people to feel their music… Realism and Impressionism, c. 1850-1890  Bourgeois Celebration  Social Criticism o “The Stone Cutter” (1849) o Third Class on the Omnibus o “Work” (1865) o “Last of England” (1855) – people leaving by why? Scarf symbolically sheltering husband from hardship (her duty), comfortable. Other duty – childbearing – and she is pregnant o “Lunch on on the Grass” (1863) – naked woman?! Scandalous because in modern setting (in a park) o “A Bar at the Folies-Bergere” – reflection of woman, a man, reflection purposely offset. Pose because she has become an object of consumption. Critique of Parisian way of life o “The Glass of Absinthe” – Edgar Degas (1834-1917) o “Lucheon of the Boating Part” (1876) – celebration of the new Bourgeois life  Photography becoming popular, painters wanted to imitate photographers by depicting realistic situations, capture a moment in an impressionistic way. Impressionism in Music  “La Mer” – Claude Debussy (1862-1918) o Moved way from Beethoven‟s storm and stress; but like art, trying to capture a moment (in this case, the sea, in a moment) February 1, 2010 The Legacy of 1848: “Springtime of the Nations” - Revolution & Reaction in France - Italian Unification - German Unification  A huge surge of revolutionary activity (especially in central Europe) but ultimately they will mostly all fail.  France o Where revolutionary activity started o Run by a small oligarchy with a small franchise (not many people can vote) o Liberal political opposition to the “July Monarchy” – engage in a political campaign (lobbying, etc.) but constantly stymied by an increasingly conservation government. So they held banquets (which were political meetings to oppose the government) o February 1848 Lamartine‟s banquet is banned; riots ensue o Louis-Philippe flees like a coward into exile… fearing the same fate as Louis XVI o Republican Provisional Government is formed. o Sparked revolution elsewhere o Louis Blanc establishes the National Workshops – provide work to those who cannot find work, paid by government – but French didn‟t have the money or the work – expensive waste of time – French taxpayers upset, especially middle-class. o Euphoria in Paris – finally a republic, universal suffrage, etc. o As burden from Workshops increases; Decree closing of the Workshops, 22 June, is announced o The “June Days” – street fighting; barricades; class warfare  Results: Repression after the June Days is what is remembered – Rampage of the army in the streets; insurgents executed, attacked on site; viciousness of army and the government allowed such violence. o New Constitution is finished: keeps universal manhood suffrage o Election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew) as President, Dec. 1848 – ran a modern campaign, drew a lot of support from heritage. nd o Coup of 2 Dec. 1851 – tried to change constitution to run for 2 term in a row as president; denied so he organized a coup; placed people loyal to him in high places; declared himself president for 10 years (as a question) o Justified by plebiscite o Nov. 1852 has himself declared Emperor a year later o Justified by plebiscite (2 million people abstain however) o Second Empire begins Italian Unification  Napoleonic origins of Italian nationalism  Mazzini‟s Young Italy – organization pushing for unification  Il Risorgimento (news paper)  1848 Revolts in major cities in Lombardy-Venetia (revolt against Austrian authority); especially Milan. Sparked by the French.  Austrian Army crushes revolts (Marshal Radetzky – violent Austrian general)  King Carlo Alberto of Piedmont-Sardinia intervenes  Piedmontese army soundly defeated by the Austrians (twice)  Carlo Alberto forced to abdicate in favour of his son  King Vittorio Emanuel II o Makes peace with Austria o Austrian Empire afraid of France; support Piedmont if they do not go to the France  Roman Revolt, 1848 – revolt against the pope by Mazzini and his general Garibaldi, kick Pope (authoritarian figure) out and declare a republic  Proclamation of a republic – 1849  Pope convinces Louis Napoleon to support him re-establishing his papacy in Italy  Roman Republic crushed by French army  Lessons of the failure of 1848-49 o Separation of nationalism from liberalism  Cavour and the Piedmontese State – if anyone, they have the power (army) to unify Italy o Cavour funds nationalist societies and hopes to use them in the future, these societies work for Cavour without knowing  Plombieres Agreement, 20 July, 1858 – Cavour is the master of background deals (smart) and Napoleon is not. o Collusion between Cavour and Napoleon III – Carvour promises to declare a war against Austria (this is where the societies will come in) – revolts in north Italy and France and Piedmont will declare war on Austria in defense of those revolting cities (being oppressed by Austrians) – land grab – consolidated with an arranged marriage  Cavour tasks Garibaldi with rising insurrections in Austrian controlled cities  Piedmont and France come to the aid of revolting cities as planned  Battles of Mafento and Solferino – victories against Austrians  Peace of Villafranca, 11 July, 1859 – France and Austria declare peace without advising Cavour who resigns feeling betrayed o Tranfer of Lombardy, Nice and Savoy to the French  France gives Lombardy to Piedmont  Garibaldi was from Nice, he didn‟t want Nice to become French, also upset war was cut short  Garibaldi‟s Red Shirts and the campaign in the South; With a fleet, he sails south and he stirs revolution in Sicily; peasants join Garibaldi; marches up the Italian peninsula; closes-up on Naples; Cavour sees chance to unite Italy, rises up his nationalist societies, forms army and meets Garibaldi‟s army – Garibaldi and Massimo D‟Aerglio meet personally on field and gives up all that he has conquered to Massimo  Proclamation of united Italy, 1860 – “We have made Italy, now we must make Italians”  United by force not nationalism – quell many peasant uprisings o Garibaldi – received island and lives out the remaining of his life, never really rewarded for his important role February 3, 2010 The Legacy of 1848: “Springtime of the Nations” Part II - German Unification  Two Empires, Prussia and Austria (well Prussia technically Kingdom), vying for influence in Germany  Land given to Prussia (for buffer state to contain French) contained the largest coal deposit in the world which made it a economic powerhouse at the onset of the industrial revolution German nationalism as a liberal cause - German Confederation (1815) - Opposition of the German Princes Revolts in Berlin, Vienna, et al., in March and April 1848 - Granting of liberal constitutions Frankfurt Parliament, 1848-49 - discusses ideas but has no army, it has no way of enacting its decisions – most important question, do they exclude Austria (many Germans but also a huge mix of other nationalities): - kleindeutsch – small Germany excluding Austria or - großdeutsch – including Austria Decided to exclude Austria and offered Crown to Prussian King but he refuses Reaction and repression - Frankfurt Parliament offers German Crown to Prussian King - King Frederick William refuses Crown – German has no legitimacy - Unification could have ended here.  1840s-50s – German economy becoming increasingly integrated; reduction of tariffs, building railways – Prussia largely contributed (Rhine) – but politically the states are resisting unification Otto von Bismarck - Never a German nationalist but set in the motion the creation of one of the greatest nation-state in Europe - “ends justify the means” - Prussian Junker – conservative elite (East Prussian aristocracy) - Becomes prime minister - Army Crisis, 1862 – present the army bill to the legislative assembly, makes it pass illegally; Bismark uses power/mystique of the army to push things through; gains support of King for standing up to Liberals – after, cements position as prime minister - Realpolitik – engages in shenanigans to increase lands and power of Prussia Isolating Austria: I - Schleswig-Holstein Question – mixture of population (majority German in Holstein; minority in Slesvig), ruled by Danish king - War against Denmark, 1864 – Denmark want Slesvig to become part of their kingdom, Germany/Bismarck is obviously against this. Bismarck gains support of Prussians (“defenders of German independence) and they defeat Danes. - Polish revolts, fled to Prussia, Bismarck allowed Russian army to cross into Prussian borders to capture the Poles, they were brought back, trialed and executed – Gained support of Russia Isolating Austria: II - Biarritz Meeting with Napoleon III – territorial compensation if it stayed out of any conflict (Luxemburg) between Prussia and the Austrians but Bismarck has no power to give Luxemburg to French – Napoleon accepts. - Isolation of Russia and Britain - Drawing in Italy – attack Austria from south and Italy will be more unified (Venetia) - Prussia occupies Holstein - Austro-Prussian War of 1866 – Austria demanded that all German states join them against Prussia and they do (mostly southern states). - Battle of Sadowa, 1866 – Prussian superiority in artillery and professionalism defeats Austrian army - Creation of North German Confederation, 1867 – expansion of Prussia after war (small German states invaded) – doesn‟t occupy southern-most German states (peace treaty instead) - Bismarck convinced (emotions) Prussian king to declare war on friend and then again convinces him not to have a victory parade in Austria (would create permanent enemy) - Oops! Luxemburg was not mine to give; Napoleon is humiliated - Prussia/Germany becoming a very threatening state - Deal between southern german states and france (mutual defense pact) Spanish Succession Question - Leopold Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (distant relative to Prussian King) – shopping for a king (candidates usually German) – Bismarck happy but French alarmed (German king in Spain) and speaks to Prussian King who agrees with the French; French then want Prussian king to guarantee that no German should become king in France. - Bismarck edits the Ems telegram – press generate huge amount of national outrage both in France and Germany - Napoleon III declares war, 19 July, 1870 - South German States drawn into conflict – Bismarck sends an ultimatum (join us or you‟ll be invaded) - French defeated in a short 6 month war; surround Paris; French revolt + brutal repression (Napoleon exiled) - Battle of Sedan, 1870 German Empire Proclaimed, Jan. 1871 – All of Germany is unified under Prussia – added two French states and forced French to pay indemnities – king of Prussia becomes Kaiser and Bismarck becomes Chancellor. th February 10, 2010 Laat-19 century Ideological Challenges Socialism and its variants - Challenges to Liberalism - Utopian Socialism – believed they could change just by putting forth good idea; socialism is based on community not individuality – need communal rights.. (liberalism – Individuals oppressed groups…) – most socialists anti-clerical – getting rid of marriage bond (“free love”) - Karl Marx (1818-1883) – capitalism would steam roll over socialist commies. Critiques utopian socialism and introduces scientific socialism (laws of nature) o Communist Manifesto (1848) - propaganda o Capital (1867-1804) – in-depth analysis of how capitalism works; showing capitalism is the most efficient way, it systematically oppresses other social groups and its doomed because of its own structure (competition, will eventually collapse) - Frederich Engels (1820-1895) - Marx‟s Theory of Historical Change: o Dialectical Materialism o Labour Theory of Value – labour of making something is what makes goods worth anything – depriving proletariat of profit is basically stealing from them o Class conflict (and as result a third class arises from it) o In capitalism: Proletariat and Bourgeoisie will clash (violence) and there will be a class-les
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