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African History Since 1800 Jan. 8/13 1) Pre History: The Origins of Humankind in Africa – The Rift Valley Origins of man kind found here, extend through Kenya, up to Ethiopia and to the Red Sea. Found in Olduvai Gorge and Hadar. Taung, southern Africa The beginning of all history, interwoven Olduvai Gorge, in modern day of Northern Kenya Australopithecus Afarensis, discovered in Gorge, “Lucy” South Africa as well, “Taung Child” both 4.3-2.3 million years ago 1.5-2.5 million Homo Habilis “Handy man” in gorge 1.6 Million – Homo Erectus 200 000-160 000 get Homo Sapians – Herto Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and Blombos Cave In South Africa, 70 000 years ago “Out of Africa” Human Migration Theory Dated 100 000-70 000 years ago move out od Afruca at Bab el-Mandeb crossing, very narrow crossing, Evidence (a) Mitochondrial DNA – can pass from mother to child, can trace it through the world (b) appearance of similar technologies along the route (c) Paleontological “documents” Had to move due to environments, water dried our, i.e. Lake Chad, can see through tools. Also had to move due to food supplies and population increase. Demonstrates that Africa is the birthplace of humanity 50 000 – 10 000 BCE – African Foragers Upper Paleolithic Period 200 000-50 000 BCE – Forager Groups – migrate Tools Irregular – do not reflect variety or sense of specialization Major Devolopments:50 00- BCE During the Upper Paleolithic Period Remarkable developments in tool making – cognitive development  more sophisticated tools for cutting, fishing nets, needles for sewing  Hunter Gatherer groups Evidence: (a) Archeological (b) Linguistic Evidence (c) Botanical Evidence **** Role of Environment in determining language – archeological finds linked environmental = display human ingenuity to adapt to environment African Geographies, Environments and Climates Geographies and Environments in Africa have determine foraging techniques, migration patterns, and later trade production od goods and livelihood African Environments: (a) Mediterranean (b) Desert (c) Sahel (d) Grassland Savannah (e) Woodland Savannah (e) Rainforest African Climates – Med-mild, predictable rainfall Dry (c) minimal rain fall _ more grass and fewer trees (d) regular rainfall (e) large amounts of rainfall This affects life style, can‟t trade or go out Not Static = always shifting 30 000 BCE Sahara aquatic environment – remnant Lake Chad Rainforests expand and retract African Language Groups Geographies, Environments and Climates in Africa determine foraging techniques, migration patterns and language development Africa (1) Khoisan (first language, now mainly in south) (2) (3) (4) (5) (in Madagascar, more symbolic of Polonaise) Disease Factor Some environments and climate foster a disease environment Malaria and Yellow Fever Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) – attacks livestock ie. Cattle – affects livelihoods ad can be transmitted to humans Tsetse fly Migration patterns and ”protects” in some cases against outsiders – if a new disease comes about may be important to move, especially if working with something like cattle Foraging Groups – Language Distribution 1)Khosian – migrate to Southern Africa – arid climate = hunting 2) Afro – Asiatic – migrate to the Sahara 3) 4) 5) Cave Paintings 25 000-10 000 years ago Algeria, Chad and South Africa Beyond tools – material culture – first historical “documents” we possess – artistic forms 10 000-5 000 BCE – Settlement Agricultural Revolution Each forager group – semi permanent settlement (10 000 BCE) Settlements along banks of the Nile Gradual Switch to farming over 5000 year period Agricultural production – dikes and irrigation systems emerge – evidence on banks of the Nile Why the Nile  The Sahara  II. Ancient Africa: Ancient Egypt 3600-3000 BCE shift to specialization of labor and hierarcholpolitical – economic systems – 2 sites: Nagada and Hierakonpolis (south and north of Thebes pespectively) – irrigation systems and walled = competition Notes will be put on Avenue Irrigation systems so we know that they are highly developed and there were walled communities which demonstrates competition. There was trade, can find evidence that there was trade between communities Taxation, there were a lot of developments in this time period Religious ideology emerges, Pharaoh = embodiment of 2 Gods of Southern and Northern Egypt Nubia: Kingdome of Kerma, Kush and Mereo 2700 BCE get settlement, south of 1 stCataract of the Nile Kerma – 2400, in 2 nd intermediate period will ally Punt and Egypt with trade Even at this time there was political organization, There was a military Around 1000 BCE Kush becomes powerful 730 – Pharaoh Piye invades and conquers Thebes and the Upper Nile Kush is when they are ruling Egypt Meroe with be very powerful until Askum Carthage Colony by Phoenicians in 1000 BCE, trade with in land One of the origins of the name Africa is because when Romans take is call is “Ifrikia” Introduction of Camel, no longer have to trade on foot Ancient Aksum Powerful from 300 BCE-700 CE, trade with Egypt, India, Swahili Excepts Christianity very early, develops early in Africa Issued there own coins Ancient No Polity In Nigeria Found Iron Technology Domestication of the horse Overview of Notable African Polities Throughout the Centuries III. Representing Africa Herodotus Alexandria thought of as the first University, in Egypt Represents Africa  Ship Captain Accounts – were the middle men  Apologists – those involved in slave trade  Arab Traveler Accounts – Ibn Battuta, went all the way to China, left different descriptions of the places he was in. was interested in the social aspects of life  Abolitionist Interpretations of Africa – Goals - Debunk the “Curse of Ham Myth” used Christianity to justify slavery, Olaudeh Equiano, wrote a book and would go to universities and discuss what happened to him. Same with Ottaboh Cugoano  Traveler Accounts – “Expolorer”, Clapperton  Imperial Histories  Hugh Trevor Roper African History is Born Africanists  Precursors o W.E.B DuBois o Melville Herkovits o Eric Williams o A.B.C. Sibthorp st  1 Generation  British Branch o Roland Oliver o John Fage  American Branch o Phillip Curtin o Jan Vansina African Historical Voices  Precursor o Olaudah Equiano o Sibthorpe A.B.C.  1stGeneration o Chelkh Anta Diop nd  2 Generation o Walter Rodney o Abdul Shariff o Joseph Ki Zerbo o Toyin Falols  **Role of Pan Africanism and Independence Movements a Factor African Schools IV. Methodology in African History – Interdisciplinary Approach  Oral History and Oral traditions  Written Sources  Linguistic Evidence – developments and mixing of languages  Archaeological Evidence  Botanical Evidence  Art Expressions: Visual Art, Music, Dance, Material Culture, Literature, Narratives, Poems  Paleontological Evidence  Genealogy (King Lists) Woodville Marshall:  African History requires an interdisciplinary methodological approach V. African History – Considerations  Historical Moment  Regions/ Histories = Diversity  Polity or flag  Who is writing the History and for whom? Reactionary vs. objective – possible?  Africa at Centre of History  Non-Static nature  History as activism Colonialism and Resistance  Key Terms o River Steamers/ Steam-Powered Ships o Quinine o Rifles/Breechloaders/Machine Guns o Conquest – Slow rate commercial vs. rapid goal oriented vs. settler communities o Alliances o Soldiers, Missionaries, Merchants o African Polities: Soldiers and Merchants o Berlin Conference th o 19 Century Shift – Parity to „New Imperialism‟ I. River Steamers/ Steam-Powered Ships  Steamships Features  Retractable Keel  Hull – Iron and flat unlike “V” shaped sailing ships, flat front, can go in shallow waters, skip middle man  Multiple watertight compartments, made ship more stable, part could flood but could still survive  Rivers critical to colonial process II. Medical Innovations  Quinine – 1847, protects/ prevents Malaria, took some time to perfect.  West Africa = White Man‟s Grave III. Firearms  Firearms have been there for along time, Firearms for slaves.  Played major role in all over Africa, West specifically.  Flintlock Musket – 75 yard range  Gatling Gun and Maxim Gun really tip the balance IV. Soldiers Merchants and Missionaries A. Soldiers  Local Recruitment Necessary B. Merchants  Mulattoes – mixed race, were resistant in many cases, didn‟t like having middle man position being taken from them. C. Mssionaries  Christianize, Civilize, Educate V. Theatres: The Gold Coast and Britain  Forge Alliance, British/ Fante versus the Asante  1874 – Brits take Kumasi  Internal conflicts, Asante compared to Rome, complex system of trade networks Berlin Conference 1884-1885 „Scramble for Africa‟  Everyone wanted to carve out there own piece of Africa, B,F, S, P, etc. th 19 Century African Economies 1/8/2013 4:56:00 PM Commercial Trade in West Africa and Central Africa 2 levels of trade, local and external  Local Systems – Political Systems – Tribute (pay money to the most powerful to remain autonomous) in goods, currency and or slaves, ie. Ashanti, Dahomey must pay tribute to Oyo  Local – Kola Nut Trade, Malagueta Pepper Trade  Local Currencies: Iron bars, cowry shell, coins, paper money  There was a credit program in place, pawnship What items are values and exchanged?  European Imports – firearms, liquor, ammunition, cowry shells, glass beads, cloth, luxury items (jackers/hats)  West African exports – slaves, palm oil (very useful)  Process: gift exchange and negotiation  Currencies: iron bars, cowry shells, coins, paper money **External trade with Europeans  Gift exchange and annual tax for castles/”factories”  African‟s don‟t like the end of the slave trade, huge loss of business for them  Slaves were brought into Africa from Indonesia Trans Saharan Commerce  Sokoto, Timbuktu, etc. What items are valuable and exchanged  Arab Imports – salt  Soudan (land of the blacks, not modern day Sudan) Exports – slaves, gold Slaves then carried to North Africa and Middle East + servants, soldiers, harems **more women involved in this trade compared to the Trans-Atlantic East Africa – Commerce Mozambique to Somalia, well established commercial networks occurring between here and India (Muscat) External Trade with Indians, Omani‟s and Chinese East African Swahili Trade – Clothes, Dates Case Study 1: Liberia – Kru Homeland They are wage labourers in the time of slavery, they are hired and pride themselves on it Historical Mention of the Kru – See Powerpoint  Were mariners – early model of outsourcing wage labour  Knew the sea  Did slave trading as well, helped with moving slaves, natural geography meant boats couldn‟t just come in  Freetown (Sierleon)  Would create Krutown wherever they went Labour Migration – would go off to work and then eventually come home They were promoted because they were suck good workers, transforms traditional hierarchy, have more wealth and influence when they come back to community, Krytown in Liverpool, Capetown, Niger Expedition (1841), French Congo (1920‟s), British Guiana (1841-53) See Powerpoint! Some Observations  Early model of outsourcing wage labor  Transformations into wages = social and political structural changes in temporary and homeland atmospheres, huge changes, women especially.  Diversity of roles  Trend of growth of capitalism/wage labour ie. Nyemwezi Case Study 2: Sokoto Caliphate Spread of Islam: Military Campaigns in North Africa  Spread to Mororo through Africa, often related to war  Jews in Egypt, welcome them as they have a lower tribute then there own government Merchants spreading, and then eventually the general public The Fulani Migration – people in west Africa who were pastoralists, would bring it to different communities as they moved Jihadic States in West Africa – Futa Toro, Futa Jalion, Masina, Sokoto, could enslave non believers, each community had different beliefs Usman dan Fodia (Northern Nigeria) enslaved for plantation purposes “Bori” – mix of Islam and Local religions, daughter Nana Asma‟u wants to change this Plantations – textile industry Emirate Case Study 3: The Swahili and the Omani Empire  Exports to Africa - Frankincense, coconut, dates, limes, salt, dried fish, tortoise, shell, shark fins, sheep, cotton piece  Imports from Africa – Ivory, spices ,timber, slaves Omani Empire  Drive out Portuguese th  Over the course of the 19 c. get a mass migration of Indians for the sake of trade **Intermarriage prevalent  Seyyid Said – makes decision to movie capital from Muscat Plantations – Cloves, dates, grain, coconut, argued that these plantation increase slavery but something like the Kru comes along here and does a similar thing. Nyamwezi, brought into world economy, land based rather then ship based. Trade routes go far into the interior Settlers Community Direct Rule Lugarth – India, Direct rule, can keep old rule but you have to pay taxes Social Change 1/8/2013 4:56:00 PM Test – Map, who was operating where at what time, terms from this week on mostly 1. African Trade Networks Thriving trade throughout continent for centuries West Africa – Internal/Trans-Saharan/ Atlantic Networks Much traded, food, resources people, etc. East Africa – Middle East/ Indian Ocean Network/ Atlantic Network  Ivory, cereals, cloves, grains, dates, slaves exported for dried shark Chinese porcelain  Internally – River Networks  Bobangi canoeists – Congo River  Douala traders – rivers in Cameroon th  ***Trade long established – 19 century Africans incorporated at accelerated rate into world system Africa Trade Networks – network of linked communities, some still used today, lots of lateral movement Indian Ocean – very linked, running out of Zanzibar, there are a lot of players here. Abdul Sherief River Trading – Congo, takes right to the heart of the continent. Zambezi also. Nigir. Not easy to navigate. Nile – life line for trade for thousands of years. Atlantic Trade Networks – Slave trade database 2, can trace what part of Africa your ancestors came from. 2. Transformations: Cash Crop Revolution Subsistence Farming th th  Shift in 19 century and 20 century from subsistence farming to cash cropping  Subsistence farming – grow a variety of staples – like yams, maize, sorghum and vegetables – produce surplus for emergency times and exchanged for items like cloth, fish and salt. Famine, drought  Environment/climate and geography determines what will be grown and what will be exchanged. Cash Crops  Focus on single crop  Cotton, groundnuts, coffee  Here the crop is sold and proceeds went to buying basics, food, clothing  Cash cropping began before colonialism – Senegal – peanuts, East African farmers produces grain for Saudi Arabia, **Zanzibar produces cloves for Middle th East and lagoons in Nigeria – mass palm oil production 19 century  Women were labourers, acquire people through debt  Want to create producers and consumers  Supply and demand  **Challenges: must be a buyer and a means for the producer to produce a mass amount of crop – ie. Needs credit system in place th  the concept of a wage economy in 19 century Africa relatively sparse – exceptions the Kru and the Nyamwezi – barter exchange far more common. What was cash cropping, why was it important?? Why? 1) Easy to document 2) Easy to tax 3) As colonial government established themselves cash cropping was seen as a way to integrate Africans into a colonial system – colonists could lend credit and also demand tax but they needed to integrate Africans into a money economy 4) In many cases, the crops were vital to the metropolis economy ie. France needed cotton for its textile industry – West African colonies were seen as the answer to that demand Study Cash Crop Map Can‟t become over reliant on colonies to bring in main economy High elevations – Kenya = coffee, grow crops suitable to region geographically Believed palm oil would remove slavery, but really make it worse and have to be slaves at home. Ghana: Cocoa Farming  Cocoa part of the Columbian Exchange (exchange of crops between Africa and the Americas)– takes off in Ghana  Tree Crop – thrives in forest environments  Needs Capital to begin process: clear the land, seedlings, planting, weeding, harvesting and processing = need labour force  First harvest 3-4 years after planting  1890‟s – British colonial Government introduces cocoa to Ghana, also missionaries and Teten Quashie (blacksmith)  **local cash cropping in place before British introduce it  Gold Coast Nigeria  Cotton and Groundnuts  Southwest Nigeria – cocoa  North – based in Kano – cotton Sokoto caliphate – cotton/indigo familiar with process  1912 Kano railway opened  British Cotton Growers Association (BCGA) – marketing board takes control = set ce floors (standard price farmers will get their crop know in advance) 1912 famine – marks shift to groundnut planting – for survival purpose Zanzibar  Omani Roots  1890 – becomes a British “protectorate”  Clove plantations – tax clove exports problem – use slave labor  1907 – slavery abolished  most former slaves became squatters on their former master land and continues to work the clove plantation as a form of rent. Kenya  Unique case – settler society  Following 1902 Uganda railway – settler immigration – highlands environment – i. no malaria or yellow fever  European settler farms – need labour force  Don‟t have cash cropping really, don‟t want to be competition for other farmers  Coffee and sisal in the highlands  Land taken from the Kikuyu and Kamba on grounds that it was not being used to its full potential – settlers purchased the land at nominal prices  Kikuyu and Kamba – to “Native Reserves” or become squatters on settler land Reserves expected to work for settlers – wage workers who must fulfill colonial government imposed tax obligations Settler beliefs – Africans – “target workers” – work until fulfill the tax obligations and the walk off the job Strategy: Africans – move between wage work for the tax purpose and subsistence farming Settlers Response – Masters and Servants Ordinance – workers could be jailed for not finishing contract and government appointed chiefs established to ensure a regular workforce 3. Other Transformations : Colonial Infrastructure  Transportation networks to move goods, need for modernization.  Colonial governments expected to meet their costs locally  Sometimes in a better position through taxes then cash crops  Mining important Types of taxes:  Hut Tax – tax collectors visit village count roofs and present tax bill based on number of houses o Countered – build fewer houses – rebellion – Sierra Leone (Bel Bureh 1804-1908)  Poll Tax – A per capita tax  Miscellaneous Tax – canoe tax – Zanibar  In order to meet these obligations – Africans engage in first colonial administration projects = public works projects – railwat lines and ports  ***Aba Women‟s War (1929) Goal – link the colonies to the world market and supplant existing trade network system outside of colonial influence Create artificial harbos – Takoradi Labourers brought in from India for Uganda railway, end up not leaving Investment in modern ports and steamships supplant local dhow ships in Zanzibar Railwats supplant porters Brussels Treaty of 1890 – encourages European powers to build railways and river steamers in Africa as part of modernization project aimed at stamping out slavery and the slave trade 4. Colonial Mines Congo  Congolese Copper Belt: Low local population – need labour source from outside  Belgian companies – look to labour from British and Portuguese colonies  1911 – Katanga Labour Exchange Forms – hires labourers- then distributes to companies  Initially want short term contracts but by the 1920s realize they need skilled labourers and encourage them to bring families  Result – clinics, schools and home develop – migrant labourers come from Zambia, Mozambique South Africa  Settler community  Temporary contracts  Johannesburg- workers live in hostels- restricted from living in communities in which they work  Low wage  Skilled work goes to white miners  Result – “oscillating migration” – part of lives lived on mines and part at home – places like Mozambique, Malawi, Botswana 5. Labour Force and Gender Implications Ghana 1) Masters and Servants Ordinance 2) Family Labour – slave men would bring wives, „slave wives‟ later pawn wives = collateral on the interest of a loan, along with free wives – provide farm labour in exchange for subsistence provided by husbands Forced Labour – forced to produce a certain amount 6. Urban Sites Education – have to opportunity to make money with the colonial government. Women run informal sector: service industries – food, clothing, shelter, entertainment and comfort (prostitution) Luise White 0prostitution in Nairobi Conclusions: Tax base – run colonial administration and supply metropolis markets and external markets Transforms communities and gender roles with introduction of wage economy – morphing social order Migration 1/8/2013 4:56:00 PM Pick 10 of the 12 definitions and define it, all in the power points, Scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference, Direct Rule indirect rule, cash cropping (how it effected lives), subsistence cropping, Different Taxes, Hut, head, pole, protectorate (should they come under attack they will be defended, in reality control), at least 4 point, who, what, impact in Africa. Words bolded in text book. Map also on 316, have idea of where different admin. Were at. I. Resistance to Colonialism Key Terms  Military  Intellectual  Unions II. Military Theatres: A. Etheopia  A lot of high land, natural defense, Guerilla warfare.  Beacon of hope, not fully colonized, Italians occupation in WWI, brief occupation but never really colonized  Protectorate – administer control here and we will provide with arms. Able to beat Italy because of alliances. Give out parts to be able to protect B. The Gold Coast – Asante Resistance  Brits use the world Protectorate here also, with the Fante to protect against the Asante. Absorb other militaries.  Kumasi – Asante Capital, system of highways that lead there. Collect tributes from the surrounding areas in return for self government  Fante – Cape Coast, closer to the shore.  Not easy defeat  Berlin Conference isn‟t the end of the conflicts  Massive looting and exile of Asante leaders  Colonialism is a short chapter in the history of Africa, legacy will have an impact C. Sudan  Look to Egypt, administered by Ottoman‟s for a time. Becomes a compartment of Egypt  Cotton – events in America effects this  Resistance in the form of a Jihad  Muhammad Ahmad 181 declares himself the „Mahdi‟ D. Algeria  French challenge Ottoman‟s for this land  Great wine industry  Religion becomes form of resistance E. Sierra Leone  Bai Bureh – rebellion to Hut Tax  Military back ground, Guerilla warfare against the Brits  Blocks resources  Resistance was part of process, wasn‟t in vain III. Intellectual Theatres if Resistance  Get and education and then undermine those who taught you  Initially it was with missionaries  Becomes and educated class in all the areas  Leaders of rebellion have mostly been educated at these schools. Who is educated initially –  In Angola it is the prior slaves, get a bottom up types of conversion  In the Kongo it is a top down mentality What kind of skills – accountant, nurses, clerks, teacher, journalist – big professions  Priests – Protestant would do everything in the local languages, while Catholics didn‟t  Portuguese colonialism worst Weapons – Unions, associations, ideological tracts, conferences A lot more indigenous population the immigrated, need the man power A. Clements Kadalie  Nyasaland  Teacher  Responsible for Industrial and Commercial Union, 100 000 in 10 years. origins of independence movements.  Arrests and Deportation – Native Administrative Act - goal is to prevent racial agitation towards white population B. Harry Thuku  Kikuyu  Pioneer of Kenyan Nationalism  Educated at a mission  Typesetter for The Leader (British Newspaper) – clerk telegraph operator  Newspaper important tool of propaganda  Founds the Young Kikuyu Association – better working conditions and fair playing field  Arrested and Deported  Will come back and form the Kikuyu Provincial association – militant wings vs. non militant Intellectual Movements: Negritude  Comes out of French – go to school in Paris – Aime Cesaire, Leopold Sedar Senghor, Leon Demas  Stir things up in Paris  Pen is a Weapon W.E.B. Dubois  First African American to ear a doctorate – Harvard  Goes to Treaty of Versailles  Wants to end Jim Crow laws  Said to have influences the League of Nations of the Mandate Commission – 4 points  *** Invited by Nkrumah to write the Encyclopedia Africana – 1961 – completes 3 books  Died in Ghana 1963 at 95 years old Marcus Garvey  Jamaican  Was a catalyst for black nationalism, Pan-Africanism  Goal was to have European powers leave Africa  Champion of having people go back to Africa Conclusions  Catholic vs. protestant ie. Conform vs. liberty  Canadian connection in Angola Missions Produce = nurses, lawyers, journalists, editors  Undermine Colonial System  Protesting – forced labour and tax system – racial hierarchal societies  Global Stirrings – African Diaspora  Gradual Resistance Isicathamia Ladysmith black mambazo Township music Johannesburg Choir … 1. Colonialism Goal of Colonial Power: Control economic output Strategy:  Create functioning bureaucracy  System of authority for regulating state-society General ideologies:  Economic Exploitation  Recial Superiority – scientific racism – David Hume, Edward Long, Social th Darwinism, anthropology, classification of races, 18 century Stadial Theory (hierarchy, 4 levels) Challenges:  Public Support at Home: Altruism – idea that “white man‟s burden” + actually helping Africans by colonizing them – providing benefits of technology, Western education, medicine, economics, development, spreading Christianity, spreading Civilization David Livingstone – 1813-1873 II. Varieties of Colonial Administration A. Charter Companies The means by which colonial powers sought to establish colonial rule with a minimal amount of colonial …..  Virginia Company  British East India Company  1897 – Royal Niger Company Charter companies everywhere – like big men Characteristics:  Charter - Interested in short term gains o In Congo forced to meet quotas if they didn‟t then they were tortured, murdered, etc. despite “free”  Phased out over time in favor of direct and indirect rule  Direct – Minimal participation of African participation in colonial Admin. o Report to colonial admin o Control over all aspects o Large number of colonial officials needed (1) French Case  Assimilation Ideology o Replace African culture with French o Africans would become civilized via colonialism – technologically and socially – a cultural mission o New colonial territories to be included in French administrative system = part of “Great France” o Subject people to become French Citizens – who were culturally indistinct from their counterparts at home o Will want to abandon local hierarchy and become French, who hate monarchy (2) Belgian Congo Case:  Role of missionaries in assimilation: rely on them for expanding influence (3) Portuguese Case  Believed the had some sort of right to land, first to make it to parts of Africa, but Europeans said no.  Little done at home, even with education (4) German Case  first extermination by German‟s – Hararo Indirect Rule  Colonial rule through existing African Authority  Sokoto Caliphate British Colonial Monarchy  Like social hierarchy  Respect for inherited authority and believe in social class Africa and African‟s Roles in World War 1 and 2 1/8/2013 4:56:00 PM Liberation movements different for each colonial power – Look at 2nd slide Impact on German East Africa Types of governments, language, where you go schooling, may go to Europe to get an education WW! Africa and Africans Two Continental Theatres:  Europe  Africa * France approx 600 000 colonials mobalized 200 000 Senegalese to Europe * Recruitment – 35 000 African porter Not all Recruits and Conscripts:  Porter  Cooks  Soldiers How and Why would Africans join the army 2 Methods  Conscripts: Chief (Warrant Chief) told quota needed of men for the military (either abroad or locally)  Voluntary: money, escape marriage or engagement or adventure, independence Resistance to participation whether through Conscription or Voluntary Challenges Africans involvement in WW`: concerned with how it will affect not only the soldiers but the rest of civilian society: landlords, storekeepers, farmers, markets, etc. Togoland 1914 – Togoland campaign Royal West African Frontier Force  British Colonial Office: forms in 1900  Members from Nigeria, Gold Coast, Gambia and Sierra Leone o Gambian Company o The Gold Coast Regiment – 1 battaiion, infantry, 1 battery artillery o Sierra Leone Battalion o The Northern Nigeria Regiment – 3 battalion infantry, one mounted o Southern Nigeria Regiment – 2 battalion  Grows in strength by 1918 German Schutztruppe  3 Commands – o West Africa: Togoland and Cameroon o Southwest Africa: Namibia o East Africa: Tanganyika, Rwanda, Burundi German (East Africa)  Togoland – protection force  Built from police force members approx. 1000 soldiers  August 9-26 1914, British on one side French on the other, surrender  1914-1916 – Allied administered Kamerun Campaign  Very mountainous, will prove a challenge for quick victory, led to guerilla warfare  Takes almost two years to defeat the Germans East African Campaign – 1914-1918  Dar es Saleem headquarters  14 field companies – called the Askari Company  Askari – translates to soldier  Lasted from Aug 5 1914- to Nov 25 1918  300 German Officers 2 African officers 2286 Askaris 1916 – Belgian Congo – Force Publique approx 12 000 soldiers Assist the Brits but also trying to gain territory – General Smuts – order Force Publique to withdraw Germany looses all possessions in Africa after this King‟s African Rifles  Formed from Kenya, Uganda, Nyasaland, Somaliland  Following 1918 – askari and prisoners of war conscripted South West Africa  Baster Unit – employed – Cape Colony Dutch and Indigenous African Women – not locals – imported power  Camel Calvary  Primarily Germans – some Afrikaaners and Bpers join German in fight against the British  Approx. 1500 members – infantry Why?  Environment: deforestation  Waste lands  Markets and trade: crops destroyed  Former German colonies now in the hands of B or F  Administrative  Missionary  Language  Economy – crops  Resistant Movements – Independence movements World War 2:  Europe  Africa  Asia: South East Asia – Burma North Africa – Understanding the Colonial Context France – Algeria Italy – Libya, Abyssinia British – Egypt, Soudan Suez Canal – access to Red Sea and Indian Ocean – important to control for trade purposes, key strategic points, very little water between North Africa and Somalia Key Players- Africans, Italians, Germans and British Commonwealth, Americans, French How Africans would join:  Conscripted  Voluntary  Promise of Pensions, War bonus  Street Sweeps – Gambia – those living on street conscripted  Strategic Alliance Propaganda used as a tool for recrui
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