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Lecture 3

History - Lecture 3 Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Bonny Ibhawoh

Study Tips  Begin early: o Start reading novels o Start thinking about assignments  Focus on understanding o Key concepts and ideas (Imperialism, Nationalism, Marxism, etc.) o Key thematic arguments debates (know specific examples to support the greater themes/points) o Specific examples (case studies)  Discuss tutorial questions  Develop writing skills Introduction  Learning objectives o What is imperialism? th o What were the general characteristics of the 20 century imperialism? o European conquest and partition of Africa  What is imperialism? o Process by which a small number of industrial countries extended their economic and political control over much of the rest of the world o A major driving force in international relations in the 19 and 20 th centuries  Main imperial powers: 18 to 20 centuries o Britain, France, Russia  Reasons for the 19 and 20 century imperialism  Economic considerations: o Industrial revolution, need for new markets, cheap labour, industrial raw materials, agricultural produce and places for investments o Now needed industrial power to be dominant  Nationalism: German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck o Nationalism was a driver for imperialism  Strategic imperialism o Waterways, ports, military outposts, Suez Canal sea route  Cultural imperialism: “The White Man’s Burden”  Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest among nations  Christian Missionary Zeal Imperial Wars and Conflicts  Imperialism as a source of war and conflict: o Fashoda crisis in Sudan between British and France  Imperialism led to arms race, Militarism and Alliances  Rise of militaristic doctrines: o War as the best guarantee of peace o Roosevelt: “No triumph of peace is quite as great as the sublime triumphs of war.”  State Alliances: o Balance of power was maintained by alliances  Peace Movements o International peace conference in 1899 and 1907 o Coalition of academics, industrialists and activist against militarism o Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite o American industrialist Andre Carnegie o Impulse of peace is rarely from above but from below o Sometimes impulses from below are able to convince the state European Conquest of Africa (case study)  The European Scramble for Africa  Why the scramble for Africa? o Demand for raw materials o Improvement in shipping o Military technological advantage o Civilizing mission o 1847: the discovery of Quinine (cure for Malaria)  By 1945 every country in Africa was owned by Europeans except for 2 (Libya and somewhere)  Role of Missionaries  The Partition of Africa: The Berlin African Conference of 1884-5 o “First come, first served” o Mutual recognition of territories o Free trade in the Congo o King Leopold of Belgium  African resistance to European Imperialism:  British control in Egypt and the Sudan Colonial Administrative Policies  Imperialism as conquest and control  Military might is not enough to take over/defeat a country  Political, Economic and Social dimensions of colonialism  Unique to British imperialism: o They did more than just conquest o Effective in sustaining empire o Once violence was gone they were able to keep the peace o Used law, colonial policy o Made people believe that colony was for their own good  The logic of empire (sustaining empire): o Colonial policies o Policy of indirect rule (let the people continue to rule themselves) o Take over colony but do not change the structure of it o Allow old kings to still rule but have British government as well  British indirect rule policy: o  Settler and Non Settler Colonies:  The “Dual Mandate”: o Whole premise of colonialism was to help with development, exchange goods and o Help build roads, education systems, healthcare systems, etc.  British East Africa: o Multi-racial and multi-cultural societies o Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania  French assimilation policy: o Ruled places ad integral to France o Wanted to help everyone become completely French o French West Africa, Algeria o Only way to move up in life was to admit your culture was less superior than the French and give it up  South Afric
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