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History 1A03.docx

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McMaster University
Megan Armstrong

History 1A03 10/9/2012 7:25:00 AM German Reformation  Martin Luther (1483-1546)  Augustinian Friar (1505) o Catholic  Theological influences; Augustine, St Paul, Romans 1:17  The indulgences controversy (1517) o John Tetzel, Dominican Preacher o Pope Leo X (1513-1521) (he was a Medici)  “the envy of monks will feel differently when he is sober”- referring to Luther o Indulgences- “pot of divine credit”, could be accessed by people who wanted to work their way out of purgatory (between heaven and hell) o 1515: indulgence for St Peter’s Cathedral (giving money to the cathedral was a religious act/good work) o 95 theses posted on Wittenburg Cathedral  Author; German Bible  Lutheran Doctrine  Catholicism o Free will o Original sin o 7 sacraments o faith, grace, and good works (doing good Christian acts)  Lutheranism o Original sin o Sola fide, gratia, scriptura (faith, grace, scriptures)  Felt altogether born again  Way to understand god is only in the scriptures  Grace was a much more active component, now up to god to save the individual  “human will is deformed and blind… only god can save us and only through faith can we know that”  “no man is saved by his own merit” .. good works are useless o “priesthood of all believers”  only god can decide who will be saved (terrible truth)  not salvation for every believer Spread of the Reformation  The indulgences controversy (1517) Writings; German Bible, Letter to the Christian Nobility  Excommunication (1520): Pope Leo X  The Diet of Worms (1521): Emperor Charles V  The Peasant’s Revolt (1523-24) Spread of Lutheranism  Dissatisfaction with Church  Popular appeal of new doctrine  Political protection (duke of Saxony)  Printing press  Institutionalization of new faith 10/9/2012 7:25:00 AM  The Witchcraze (1480-1700) The cultural context o Dualism o Apocalypticism o Gender o Roman law and the magistracy  Era of Crisis (1555-1648)  Time of large scare warfare: Wars of religion (1562-1598) France Holy Roman Empire (1531-1555); Peace of Augsburg (1555) Dutch Revolts (1560s-17 C)th Thirty Years War (1618-1648): International  Economic and Social dislocation Inflation (c 1520s-); urban strikes, riots New “ice age”; cold climate, poor crops  Dualism and Apocalypticism Supernatural world is Imanent, present in human world, powerful Polarization of cosmos (good and evil); ideology of contrariety (Stuart Clark) Apocalypticism: coming Judgement Day, Book of Revelation (New Testament)  Gender and Sexuality Mostly women accused o Joan Kelly Gadol, Christina Larner Woman = Eve; carnal, weak, manipulative  Tertullian (197 AD) “and do you know that you are Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: You are the unsealer of that forbidden tree…On account of your desert… Even the Son of God had to die…” 10/9/2012 7:25:00 AM research essay  Witch craze  Science and medicine  Six articles to choose from (pick one or two)  Maximum 1200 words, no less than 1000 Shifting understanding of knowledge  Happening gradually  In many different centers of Europe  Shifts that will dramatically impact how people look at their relationship with god and what their relationship is too society  Changing conceptions of knowledge of other worlds  Help us unde
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