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Lecture 11

HLTHAGE 1AA3 Lecture 11: Global Health

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Health, Aging and Society
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Anju Joshi

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March 29 Global Health Health and Developing World - In West, life expectancy roughly 77 hears, only 55 in poorest countries - Infant mortality in US (2/1000) compared to 150/1000) in poorest areas - 95% of HIV infections in developing world, 70% in Sub Saharan Africa 10/90 problem: - Only 10% of the money that goes into health and illness and disease goes towards treating the problems that face 90% of the world's population - Therefore Health research money is spent on relatively small sliver of the global population What is Globalization? A few hallmarks: - (neoliberal) economic integration ex. Free trade agreements - Transmission of knowledge - Diffusion of cultural practices → Certain cultural practices are becoming more entrenched in certain parts of the world ex. Biomedicine vs CAM → ideas of biomedicine are becoming more diffused - Development of ‘global’ policies → Ex. policies related to foodborne illness, WHO develops responses to these - Physical relocation and dislocation of biological matter (meat, animals, plants, people, pathogens) → easier for these things to move from one place to the other → as a consequence see substantial health outcomes The End of Disease? - Post WWII expansion of international institutions aimed to eliminate global health inequalities - By late 1960s, suggesting “book of infectious disease” was “ready to be closed” → places where infections were common those rates began to drop off, people become optimistic and think the book is “ready to be closed” → eradication and public health measures had wiped out a number of diseases in the West burden elsewhere - By 21st century, clear this optimism had been incorrect infectious disease back and health inequalities growing → fears over new diseases and return of “old enemies” → reconceptualization of disease as a global security threat → reimagining sick people as security threats - How exactly did this happen? → narrow conception of health → economic expansion and inequalities World Health Organization Funding - Aftermath of WWII, new sense of global unity, est. of UN was to signal new era of international cooperation - Although connected to UN, WHO semi-independent - Aim was “a state of completely physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” - Health as means to avoid conflict, provide global security Disease Eradication Campaigns March 29 Global Health - WHO smallpox eradication → In 1966, 15 million people per year still got smallpox. By 1978, ceased to exist → The WHO coordinated all of these health efforts that even people in the most poor places received access to the smallpox eradication vaccine → Massive success of eliminating disease - Prompted similar attempts to use “magic bullets” rather than ameliorating structural conditions - Health as absence of disease Failure of Malarial Fight - Smallpox easier to eliminate other diseases - effective vaccine, easily identified, no animal carrier - Although eliminated from much of developed world, global eradication campaigns of malaria stalled in tropics. Greater rates now than in 1960 → parasite became highly drug resistant, changing genetic makeup with each new drug → mosquitos accidently sent across the world → climate change creates new environments for it → DDT campaigns Return of TB - TB has made return in both developed and developing world, why? → health care inequalities: TB rates highest among populations without regular free acces
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