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Health Psych Lecture Jan 16.pdf

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Jennifer Heisz

Health Psychology 2G03 ▯ Natural Experiment - categories naturally exist, groups of different people▯ Randomized control trial - different people in each group (between subject)▯ Randomized waiting list study - everyone is put on the wait list of a study. they measure before and after as a control. then once you enter treatment you have experienced control and treatment▯ patient preference trials - patients decide what group they want to be in.▯ ▯ The Case of Clever Hans:▯ - a clever horse named Hans. he could answer very complex math questions and tell you what today’s date is, and he could differentiate numbers of days in months by counting with his hooves.▯ ❖ 89% accuracy▯ ❖ his teacher had a Human Intelligence Training Protocol▯ ❖ the owner believed that these years of training made this horse highly intelligent▯ - at first people just thought the owner was cueing the horse to do things▯ - they removed the owner and Hans would still answer questions with high accuracy▯ - BUT they started noticing that the horse was only good at answering the question if the person asking the question knew the answer▯ ❖ the questioner unconsciously cued the horse and nodded their head when he was doing well, it wasn't the intelligence training it was about what the questioner was doing with their bodies….▯ ❖ POINT: what the owner thought was the mechanism for the intelligence was not actually the case, it was just a matter of cueing the horse. the HITP was not as legit as they once thought.▯ ▯ Alzheimer’s Disease▯ - a guy portrayed his experience with Alzheimer’s through self-portraits▯ - his cognitive ability significantly declined as depicted by his portraits▯ - AD is a neurodegenerative disease that impairs motor and cognitive function▯ ❖ increases the ventricles▯ ❖ shrinks: the hippocampus - without it we have no memory▯ ❖ shrinkage of cerebral cortex▯ - plaque (protein deposits) accumulate in the brain, when the neuron is dying, it gets surrounded by this plaque. people once believed if you can treat the plaque then you’re all good. but it turns out that this doesn’t actually stop it.▯ ❖ currently no cure for AD▯ ❖ over the next 30 years the # of Canadians with Dementia is projected to DOUBLE▯ ❖ Will cost upwards of 150billion dollars.▯ - EXERCISE AND AD▯ ❖ exercising earlier in life reduces the risk of AD later in life▯ ❖ we don’t currently understand the mechanism▯ Q: should we really prescribe exercise for AD without a mechanism?▯ ❖ what are the risks? falling, deception of a cure▯ ❖ what are the benefits? ▯ Q: if we choose to prescribe, should we continue searching for a mechanism?▯ ❖ depending how effective on whether or not its worth it▯ ▯
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