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Lecture 5

KINESIOL 3V03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Binge Drinking, Dalhousie University, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Course Code
Kim Davies

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Kin 3V03 Lecture 5 - Sport Teams
What is a Group?
- “Every groups is like all other groups, Like some other groups and like no other group
(Carron & Hausenblas, 1998)
o Every group is alike but also every group is unique
- Every team is different, has different dynamics
- Groups have been defined by:
o Common fate
o Mutual benefit
o Social structure
o Interaction
o Self-categorisation
- Are the following groups?
o Individuals waiting at a bus stop no
o Soccer team yes
o French speaking Canadians no
Are Groups useful (won’t ask question on this)
- 2 heads are better than one
- Many hands make light work
- There is strength unity in numbers
- Too many cooks spoil the broth
- 3 is a crowd
- If you want things done well do them yourself
What a Group is not
- Artificial aggregates
o Statistical group formed on basis of a common property such as age, sex social
- Unorganized aggregates
o An audience attending a common stimuli (watch game)
o Ex. People standing at bus stop
- Units with patterned relationships
o A culture where the members share common customs and languages
What is a Sport Team?
- Carron and Eys (2012) defined a sport group as a collection of two or more individuals
who possess:
o A common identity
o Have common goals and objectives
o Share a common fate
o Exhibit structured patterns of interaction and modes of communication
o Hold common perceptions about group structure
o Personally and instrumentally interdependent
o Reciprocate interpersonal attraction
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o Consider themselves to be part of a group
- Example: Basketball team
o Common identity
Team name/uniforms
o Common Goals and Objectives
o Share a common fate
Win or lose
- Exhibit structured Patterns of Interaction and Modes of Communication
o Verbal and nonverbal communication to convey plays
- Hold common perceptions about Group Structure
o Roles norms positions and status
o Be at gym at 6am for practice, established captains
- Personally and Instrumentally Interdependent
o Players rely on each other to achieve goals on the court, host social events, get
to practice
- Reciprocate interpersonal attraction
o Friendship develops spend time together away from basketball
- Consider themselves to be part of a group
o Self-categorization
o We vs them
Moon Shot Survival Exercise
- 1) oxygen tanks - 1
- 2) FM transmitter - 5
- 3) Map of the moon - 3
- 4) 5 gallons of water - 2
- 5) Signal Flares - 10
- 6) first aid kit - 7
- 7) food concentrate - 4
- 8) 50ft of nylon rope - 6
- 9) parachute silk - 8
- 10) life raft 9
- Left numbers are what I would rate it, numbers on right are expert ratings
- Scoring: expert individual
- Overall rankings were better as a group
Moon Shot Debrief
1. What are some of the factors in the composition of your group membership that might
influence the group
2. What are some environmental (situational) factors that might influence the group
3. What is “group structure”? How might the group’s structure influence individual and/or
group outcomes
o Roles, norms, status, position
4. What is “group cohesion”? How might the group’s cohesion influence the influence those
individual and/or group outcomes?
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5. What are “group process”? How might group processes influence the influence those
individual and/or group outcomes?
o Communication, efficacy, goals
Group Development
- Groups are living systems
- Tuckmans (1965) sequential stage (linear) theory of group development:
o Forming: tryouts, team gets together, first day of practice
First moments of a newly formed group’s life
Often marked by tension, guarded interchanges and low levels of
People monitor their behaviour and are tentative with expressing opinions
o Storming: people not getting along, figuring out roles, leadership established
(good thing at the right time)
Tension increases in the storming phase over goals, procedures,
authority, etc.
Conflict often causes fight or flight responses
Conflict is a required element for creating team cohesion
o Norming: getting on same page
Group becomes more unified and organized
Mutual trust and support increases
Rules, roles and goals are established
Communication increases
o Performing: ultimate stage you want to get to, best at playoffs ideally
Productivity is usually not instantaneous, thus productivity must wait until
the group matures
Many groups get sidetracked by the storming or normal phases
More mature groups spend less time socializing, less time in conflict and
need less guidance than less mature teams
o Adjourning: end of a season
Either planned or spontaneous
Can be stressful for team members
If dissolution is unplanned, the final group sessions may be filled with
animosity and apathy
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