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McMaster University
Anna Moro

Linguistics- 1A03 What is linguistics?  scientific study of language  the study of how language is organized and used  descriptive vs prescriptive grammar What is language?  ability to communicate feelings, ideas, thoughts, information is possible because of language  language is a "modular system" o speakers understand and produce language using several subsystems or modules at the same time  key subsytems: o phonetics: production and interpretation of sounds o phonology: patterning of sounds o morphology: words (the structure of units that form words) o syntax: sentences (the structure of larger units) o semantics: meaning o discourse: organization of language beyond the sentence  language is creative and productive o speakers produce new words, expressions, sentences out of existing units (that other speakers of that language will understand)  New words include: app, BFF, pocket dial, twitterholic, tweet cred  rule- governed creativity o language use governed by rules and constraints o production and interpretation of new forms is not arbitrary Linguistic Competence  Grammatical competence: knowledge that enables speakers to create and understand words, phrases, sentences (the units)  Communicative competence: knowledge that speakers have about that appropriate use of words, phrases, sentence (context, purpose) 'Grammar' in linguistics  Core areas of grammar: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, discourse  Grammatical/Ungrammatical: speaker's judgment of acceptability  grammaticality judgments Language myths #1 only some languages have grammars all languages have a system of sounds and rules governing how sounds pattern (phonetics& phonology) all languages have words and sentences(morphology and syntax) all languages have words and sentences that carry meaning (semantics) if speakers can communicate, there is a system. i.e. grammar every language has grammar #2 some languages are better than others all languages make communication possible- all languages are equal as instruments of communication linguistics do not rank languages basic scientific principle: describe what you observe, without judging linguistics is about describing, not prescribing linguistics recognize the role of power (economic, political) in making some languages more desirable/prestigious. i.e. english as a global language all languages are equal as systems of communication linguistics recognize the role of power,( economic, political) in making some languages more desirable/ prestigious. ex english as a global language. all languages are equal as systems of communication #3 languages differ from each other in unpredictable ways some properties of language are universal languages follow similar constraints differences are fairly limited and systematic uncovering cros linguistic patterns in object of research in typology many linguistic principles are universal #4 languages deteriorate over time what does this mean? languages reach perfection at some point in time, and then deteriorate? languages change, dont get better or worse. language in inherently variable all languages change over time #5 people must be taught the rules of their language grammatical knowledge acquired without instruction when one is a child remains subconscious native speakers communicate without being taught the rules of your language other key concepts: language is a system of arbitrary signs: there is some iconicity in language; overall, language is not iconic synchronic: diachronic linguistics language: dialect language and dialect not linguistic terms What is phonetics? Part 1 Discipline that examines  the structure (properties) of sounds  inventory of sounds in a language/ across languages Articulatory phonetics  physiological mechanism of speech production (understanding speech production) Auditory phonetics  understanding how the ear translates information to the brain Acoustic phonetics  understanding the physical properties as they can be measure by machines  spectogram-visual representation of sound Spelling/ writing systems VS. Sounds  need for a universally agreed upon system for transcribing sounds of world's languages  writing systems Syllabaries  Cree, Inuktitut, Japanese  Japanese kana: katakana, hiragana  Cree syllabary example (western cree) Alphabetic systems  in alphabetic systems (in principle) a graph= a sound  not all place equal value on consonants and vowels English orthography correspondence between sounds and symbols  to, two, too  enough, through, though  on, one, son, alone  new, lose, two, loop, soup, rude, true\ International Phonetic Association- International Phonetic Alphabet  in development since 1886  latest revision 2005 Mechanisms of speech production  lungs- push up air  trachea- wind pipe  larynx- adams apple(vocal cords)  oral and nasal filters- modifies air flows through nose and mouth air flow goes through the lungs into the trachea into the vocal cords into the pharynx which then the airflow is modified depending on if it goes either the nasal cavity or oral cavity The Glottis  space in between vocal cords in larynx  organize sounds by if we make vocal cord vibration or not  two types:  voicelessness: vocal cords far apart, no vibration, example; p,t,k  voicing: vocal cords close together, lots of vibration, example; b Classes of sounds  sounds grouped into different categories o based on articulatory and acoustic criteria  major classes of sounds o consonants o vowels o glides Criteria:  articulatory criterion: obstruction in vocal tract CONSONANTS: some or total obstruction VOWELS: little or no obstruction  acoustic criterion: sonority (acoustic strength) consonants are less sonorous than vowels  potential to be syllabic sounds that can function as peak (nucleus)( or main part of syllable) of syllable - less vocal tract obstruction+ acoustically stronger example: moon, main part= vowel Glides  glides have properties of both consonants and vowels (similar to both) o articulated like vowels o function as consonants( cannot be peak of syllable)  semiconsonants/ semivowels  English glides: yes, coin= IPA[j] wonder, found= IPA [w] Phonetics Part 2 Articulatory description's: reflect what happens and where to airflow in production of certain sounds and where: o Oral Cavity: airflow modified by position of lips and placement of tongue o Nasal Cavity: if nasal sound is produced air is allowed to escape through the nasal cavity (velum is lowered) Nasal Sounds Velum is lowered, air goes through mouth and nose. Velum is raised, goes through mouth. Example; pronounce an m goes through your nose b velum is raised it goes through mouth Articulatory Descriptions: Consonants Consonants are identified by 3 criteria  are they vibrating? voicing/voiceleness  place of articulation o where sounds are produced (where airflow is modified)  manner of articulation o how sounds are produced (how airflow is modified- degree and type of obstruction) STOPS- complete and momentary closure of airflow through vocal tract  English stops: o BILABIAL p b m o ALVEOLAR t d n o VELAR k g o GLOTTAL(british english) FRICATIVES- produced with continuous airflow (compare holding s and p)  English fricatives o LABIODENTAL f v o INTERDENTAL o ALVEOLAR s z o ALVEOPALATAL o GLOTTAL h AFFRICATES- closure+ release of air, then continued - stop-fricative sequence  English affricates  ALVEOPALATAL (PALATO-ALEOLAR) chill judge NASALS- nasal consonants are stops from the point of view of oral articulation  classified separately because air escapes through nasal cavity(velum is lowered) during their articulation  assumed to be voiced(default) but can be voiceless, almost alwayss have vocal cord vibration  English nasal stops o BILABIAL o ALVEOLAR o VELAR (EXAMPLE SING) LIQUIDS- laterals and Rs  laterals: air escapes through sides of tongue  English r= retroflex (have to bunch up your tongue as the sound is produced) ex. ride  laterals are assumed to be voiced, but can be voiceless  English liquids o LATERAL- ALVELAR o RETROFLEX- ALVEOLAR  English FLAP o sound in butter, bitter, ladder, later o we do not actually pronounce the 't' in these words, native speakers of North American English do this, we pronounce an R type of sounds rather than t or d. o example; photograph GLIDES- semi consonants/ semivowels  assumed to be voiced not a consonant, not a vowel, thats why it has a separate term  English glides o LABIOVELAR o Some speakers of English have voiceless counterpart in some contexts- which, where o PALATATL Articulatory descriptions: practice voicing~place~manner [p] voiceless bilabial stop [f] voiceless labiodental fricative [dʒ] voiced alveopalatal [ŋ]voiced velar nasal [v] voiced labiodental fricative [tʃ] voiceless alveopalatal affricate [] voiceless alvelopalatal fricative [s] voiceless alveolar fricative [z] voiced alveolar fricative [m]voiced bilabial nasal [b]voiced bilabial stop [r] voiced alveolar retroflex [h] voiceless glottal fricative [w] voiced labiovelar glide [j] voiced palatal glide [l] voiced alveolar lateral [t] voiceless alveolar stop [ʍ] voiceless labiovelar glide [ð] voiced interdental fricative [k] voiceless velar stop [ʔ] voiceless glottal stop [θ] voiceless interdental fricative [p] [t] [k] in English pie spy pin spin (Different productions of p, more air with words on right) pace space till still top stop talk stalk kin skin cope scope cool school Aspiration in English  context: word-initial voiceless stop before a vowel (to be revised later) What happens during aspiration?  delay in voicing of vowel that follows voiceless stop (positiv
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