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Behavioural Process

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Life Sciences
Ayesha Khan

Behavioural Process 9/9/2013 4:34:00 AM The Science of Animal Behaviour: Concepts, Methods, and Applications Learning Objectives  Animals and their behaviour are an integral part of human society o Animals are part of your life, as long as humans been around animals have had an effect of how human function  The scientific method is a formalized way of knowing about the natural world o Start with observation, move to a research quesition, than to a research hypothesis. Make predictins about the hypotheses, then have to have a methology to test that prediction using those methods you come up with some data, after the data you have to anaylasis the data. These steps are the formal way of doing things o Field: outside of the laboratory  Scientists test hypotheses to answer research questions about behaviour o Observation can be something you came across after reading a paper, doesn‟t have to come from the wild  Anthropomorphic explanations of behaviour assign human emotions to animals and can be difficult to test o Take our human behaviours and emotions and assume that animals behave the same way. Example taking the term infatuation a cat is infatuated with another cat. This is an example of an anthropomorphic explanation. Sometimes there is a comonalitity we show fear and anger animals do to. But its just the way we show it  Scientific knowledge is generated and communicated to the scientific community via peer-reviewed research Lascaux Cave Paintings  South western France  When we see the cave paintings we assume  Detailed enough to present different kinds of concepts, example hunting. Meaning that there is food available.  Extant: species are still around and they are not yet extinct Altamira Cave Paintings  Northern Spain  Vivid descriptions of different kinds of animals  Often people presume that these paintings were just symbolic however in these paintings the concept is very important because some of these animals are either extinct or extant. In one way or another we are related to some sort of animal.  Form of connection with animals, children start to have this at a very early age  Ceasar comapain, look like your dog so why don‟t you feed it the best  Fido, think of dog.  Animals and their behaviour have been around for a very long time  The study of animal behaviour is much more than interaction with animals, rather we have to go back to that scientific method What is Behaviour? Lizards are ectothems (outside, if it starts to heat up doesn‟t have the capasicty to cool on the inside rather it moves under a rock where there is shade , we are endotherms; happens on the inside (when its hot we start to sweat to cool us down  Any internally coordinated, externally visible pattern of activity that responds to changing external or internal conditions. Defining Behaviour:  Internally coordinated = internal information-processing o body is constantly processing information; being in the “know”. Body works as a complete unit, whats happening as a sense, metabolic chemical etc process o Example: cataperlliars need to eat all the time “where is the food” uses it senses to find food, the right food o Example: aggressive behavious in giraffes, high levels of testostrone  Externally Visible = Observe & Measure o We can actually see an observe te aggressive behaviour or how much of the leaf was eaten  Behavioural Responses to Changing Conditions o Why is testostrone levels so high, especially in mating season; they fight for the femals. After mating season the testostrone leves go down and you don‟t see as much as aggressive behavious. What is Behaviour? Use lizard thermoregulation to explain the definition of behavior Internally coordinated: some sensory process, skin heating up Externally visible: Lizard moving to shaded area in response to the temperature change Responds to changing external or internal conditions: Measuring Behaviour: Elephant Ethograms What behaviours do captive Asian elephants exhibit? (Rees, 2009)  Ethogram Time Budget (total Vs. relative) o Ethograms are done when behavior is measurable o Inventory, of all the different kinds of behavior that are relevant to the question we are asking o Time budget: how long it is participating o Total: total time o Relative: fraction relative behaviours divided relative by time o Frequency: means number  Methods used for the elephant ethogram: Recorded behaviour every 5 minutes for an entire day once a week for 11 months  Results: Elephants spent about ¼ of their time feeding Stereotypic behaviour negatively correlated with feeding behaviour o Negative correclection: one goes up the other goes down REDUCE STEROTYPIC BEHAVIOUR SO  Conclusion: Using widely spaced feeders to supply food slowly and at random times could reduce the frequency of stereotypic behaviour. ( in this case feeding)  Ethogram to Assess Female Sexual Maturity 1. Male mounts: male climbing onto female‟s back 2. Lordosis postures: female (frozen) immobile in response to a mount with hindquarters raised potentially permitting intromission 3. Biting gestures: teeth directed toward the male, not necessarily pinching the male‟s skin 4. Freezing response: Immobility without raising hindquarters The scientific method is a formalized way of knowing about the natural world  Have to formalize it so everyone has the same idea and concept on how things work. Everyone is on the same page Research question: Any behaviour we would like to further understand Research hypothesis: Explanation based on assumption that can lead to a testable prediction The Scientific Method How do we advance knowledge in our field of research? •Formulate the research question based on a careful review of the literature •Generate hypotheses based on current observations/what is already known •Design an experiment using a paradigm (Experimental set up) and methods appropriate to the research question, incorporating carefully designed controls •Obtain ethics approval for the study •Collect data with careful attention to random sampling and random assignment  random selected, can‟t be picky and choosy have to have equal chance of selecting. •Analyze data and formulate interpretations using appropriate statistical tools •Communicate results in the form of published articles and presentation at scientific conferences (peer review process) •Replicate! •Generate the next research question based on new results  Primary Literature: what you read, where the study has been published. Ex/ Journals  Peer review process: people who have critiqued it  Secondary Literature: what we read in the text book, Someone else interpretation of someone else‟s literature that have been published in the primary literature Research question: How do male wolf spiders find unmated females? (Roberts et al. 2006) Hypothesis: Male wolf spiders use the behaviour of nearby males to find receptive females Prediction: The presence of a rival male will result in the searching male to orient toward the rival, search for a female and begin courtship tapping  Literature represents primary journals, work that has been published  given alternate hypothesis we have to figure out null hypotheses, have to re words to make our own preiction Chapter 2 9/9/2013 4:34:00 AM Learning Objectives  Evolution by natural selection favours adaptations that enhance fitness o Traits need to be heritable in order for it to be passed down to future generatoins : it can be a behaviour, morphological, can be even a brain mechanism (anxiety, fear)  Modes of natural selection describe population changes o Modes: accomplishing something o How does natural selection accomplish population change  Individual and group selection have been used to explain cooperation o Individual, concept of fitness, reproduction on an individual level  Sexual selection is a form of natural selection that focuses on the reproductive fitness of individuals o Sexual selection: reproductive ftness if relative to reproduction o Thinking about cooperation, in groups Artificial Selection Natural selection Differential reproduction and survivorship among individuals within a population The key to natural selection: Differential reproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants Evolution by Natural Selection Favours Behavioural Adaptations that Enhance Fitness Natural selection  Differential reproduction and survivorship among individuals within a population Heritable  A genetically-based trait that can be passed from parents to their offspring Evolution  Changes in allele frequency in a population over time On the Origin of Species: Published on 24th November 1859 Darwin‟s conditions required for evolution by natural selection 1.Variation exists among individuals in a population in the traits they possess 2. Individuals‟ different traits are, at least in part, heritable 3. Traits confer differences in survivorship and reproduction, a measure we call fitness  Gene alleles are the basis of phenotypic traits  Natural selection acts on heritable variation among individuals and can result in changes in allele frequencies and associated trait values in a population  Traits that confer high fitness increase over time, while those that confer low fitness decline Natural Selection Provided 3 Key Answers 1.Descent with modification 2.Adaptive function 3.United all species into one grand tree of descent: including humans Measures of Heritability Parent-offspring Regression Analysis Examines the similarity between parents and their offspring in terms of the traits they possess Selection Experiment Method Different groups of individuals are subjected to differential selection on the trait in question Heritability of Exploratory Behaviour  In some birds we see exploratory behaviour tends to differ.  In a new situation they explore a lot this is know as a bold bird o others tend to be more reluctant, no as bold shy individual. They are slower to explore and stay in one area; don‟ go very far  Parent- offspring regression analysis we look at the parent off spring and see if they do the same  if you have an animal that is very bold he will be going to every tree to see if there is food there.  Recorded the number of flights and hops in 2 mins  The points that are plotted in a scatter plot you run a line through it, the line is the regression line, the line gives you a relationships between the relationship of the two variables being studied (walk along the x- axis). Increasing so that means that there is a positive correlation.  How do you know this is genetic behaviour? o Innate tendency to teach the behaviour in further generations, it is coded in our genes Over four generations of selection, found strong changes in exploratory behaviour  Selecting for a trait that is low for exploratory behaviour  The other direction is high exploratory behaviour  0 means starting point  lots of subtleties  if there was any change, everyone would suffer equally  go back and think about natural selection: reproduction and survivorship  Differences in learning: genes are also coding in our mental  Trait differences can look at behaviour differences Variation within a population 3. Differences in Learning Trial-and-error learning results in bees increasing rate of food delivery  Look at food delivery that bees are collecting  Foraging: going out and looking for food  Over a period of days (3-4) the amount of food that is being collecting is increasing. This is due to learning trial and error learning.  4. Also possible, little to no variation in fitness over certain behaviours Eastern screech owls show great variation in dispersal direction  Little to no difference  How far do these offspring owls travel, in these animas there is lots of variation and dispersal. However there was no difference in fitness. Everyone was surviving and reproducing no matter where they were going, that never changed 5. The fitness of a trait may be related to frequency  Both males  The smaller is called sneaky male: Passes on his genes but does not engage in a lot of the parental behaviours. Finds a sight where the guarding male is sneaks leaves his genes and fertilizes the eggs  Larger male is scene a lot easier: known as the parental male, guards the territory from other males. Contributes a lot to parenting  If there were too many sneaker males: Survivorship Matings/offspring Body size Growth rate Feeding efficient Modes of Natural selection & population changes  Two graphs share x-axis ( trait value)  Y-axis (fitness) o Low trait resuls in low fitness, high in high fitness  Dash line represents before selection  Frequency tends to get shifted Directional Selection in Juvenile Ornate Tree Lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) Research question: Can directional selection act on locomotor performance in juvenile ornate tree lizards?  We can look at survivors and none survivores  Survivors have highers  Now we have to think about the environment  Cost-benefit approach, need to think about the benefit and the cost in having a particular trait Cooperation Individual Selection  At the level of the individual Group Selection  Favours particular groups of individuals over other groups of the same species o A bunch of individuals that are working towards a goal o A handful of individuals benefit o Bees are a great example. Large amount of individuals and they all have specific functions (workers, soldiers) . They are sterile individuals they don‟t benefit from reproduction Kin selection  Individuals can increase their fitness by helping close relatives o Willian D. Hamilton o Increase there capacity and give there genes by helping their relatives Inclusive fitness  Both individual and the fitness gained by helping close relatives o Individual benefitting because gene gets passed on to future generations o Your more likely to help someone that you‟re more closely related because you have more shared genes -Complex in a cognitive level ( systematical organizing information in a meaningful way) example monkey: token for food Natural Selection  Sexual slection is a form of natural selection, that acts on heritable traits Sexual Selection: specialized form of natural selection  Colour is a sexual dimorphic trait o Di means two, morph means type o Birds di (male and female) morph (size, colour) o Show after older o If you look at most males (peacoke lots of colour) , risky for attracting predators , your not very cryptic. o When Darwin was looking at functional role, why would they be adaptive o Sexual slection is a form of natural selection, that acts on heritable traits o Traits favored by the opposite sex, the traits that wil be dimorphic (women have very little hair ) Intersexual Selection (between males): female choice  Females for most species tend to select the male who she will mate with  Males are going around saying pick me  Despite that the male is obvious to predators, he is still able to survive that says something about his genetic quality because he is able to survive  Female choice: let me see the different qualities in the male and pick one which has the best genetic qualities  Chizzled face: testosterone o High levels of testosterone are a bad thing, regardless of what species we are looking at: decrease immunity this is negative correlation  Females are going for medium testosterone  Females choice Intrasexual Selection (between the members of the same sex)  Withing one sex,  Lots of competition between the same sex mostly males  Competition of members within the same sex Sexual Selection in House Finches : (Carpodacus mexicanus) Research question: Is the red colouration on male house finches a result of sexual selection? (Hill 1990) Hypothesis: Red is a sexually selected trait in males Prediction: Females will prefer males with the most intense red colouration Methods: Experiment 1 Quantified male plumage colour intensity Allowed females to choose among males Experiment 2 Artificially dyed males Allowed females to choose among males mean rank of males Chapter 3 9/9/2013 4:34:00 AM Methods of Studying Animal Behaviour Concepts, Methods, and Applications Learning Objectives  Scientists study both the proximate mechanisms that generate behaviour and ultimate reasons why it evolved o Proximate mechanism: mechanism is the process proximate is the immediate (digestive, sensory) its in the here and know it allows the organisms to act. o Ultimate Reason: ultimate is the evolutionary reason  Researchers use the observational, experimental, and comparative methods to study behaviour  Researchers have examined animal behaviour from a variety of perspectives over time  Animal behaviour research requires ethical animal use Scientists study both the proximate mechanisms that generate behaviour and ultimate reasons why it evolved Proximate explanations Focus on understanding immediate causes of behaviour  what‟s happening in the here in the now  short period of time  in the external environment of the individual Ultimate explanations Focus on understanding the ultimate (evolutionary) causes of a behaviour  escape from a dangerous situation  helps pump blood, and get adrenaline Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata) (hunts its prey at night) Proximate  Neural  Want food, so going to get it at that time- digestive mechanism  Hormonal mechanism, that it is time to eat Ultimate  Prey are more radily available at night and are sleeping, so easier for them to access the prey at night  Efficient hunting strategy  Predator avoidance, so the owl itself can avoid being hunted Golden bamboo lemur : feed primarily on bamboo shoots –but these caontain liberal amounts of cyanide (posinous) (Hapalemur aureus) Proximate:  It tastes good and it is not aware that cyanide is posinour, it doesn‟t know the harmful affects that it can have, it only thinks it tastes good  Its body can take it, they are able to digest it Ultimate:  Adapted trait having it in his blood stream, but other animals are not prone to it so it can be a defensive mechanism The Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) gathered from a solitary existence in the forest for a few days each year to mate in large numbers in a few ponds Proximate ( think about the immediate)  Visial mechanism?  Thye know they can congurate in particulare bonds because they have a hearing mechanism  Voice mechanism , that allows them to find other individuas  Do they have a capcity to find differenciate males or femals (visial) Ultimate (evolutionary perspective) What is the reason to mate? Well reproduction Tinbergen’s Four Questions Proximate questions about behaviour What mechanism caused the behaviour? How does the behaviour develop?  You can explain something from a developmental perspective o Specific changes that can occur Ultimate questions about behaviour What is the function of the behaviour? How did the behaviour evolve? Research in Animal Behaviour: Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882)  Darwin brought the process in, mechanism. Natural selection was the process  Interaction with the environment: adaptive function  Nat 1859: origins of species 1871: Decent of man kind (the second publication started to think about three big things Three major concepts in the book 1. "The sole object of this work is to consider, firstly, whether man, like every other species, is descended from some pre-existing form; (is man from pre existing animal) 2. secondly, the manner of his development (how did that change in man occur, development) 3. thirdly, the value of the differences between the so-called races of man..." (the differences we see among us, races)  is there a difference between varying races? 1872: The Expressions of the emotions man and animals: Animal origins of human characteristics.  Darwin was trying to trace the animal origins of human characteristics. Also was looking at the commonalities between humans (happy face, sad face). Started to think about the genetic aspect o submissive/ dominance behaviour; similarities between animals and humans  Darwin started the idea about the similarities and differences abour species Research in Animal Behaviour: Georges Roames (1848 - 1894)  All animal behaviour stems from reflexes, no conscious thoughts.  Learning tells us that animals function outside of purely reflexes.  Based on past experience you change current behaviour o Animals are not based on reflex, but learning is the fundamental aspect.  If your experience modifies your behaviour, we think about consciousness and liberate behaviour  Learning occurs: change in behaviors due to past Research in Animal Behaviour: C. Loyd Morgan (1852 - 1936) When ever your trying to think about explaing a behaviour you have to keep the following in mind  In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale. o Simple explanation o Start from the bottom to the top o Keep explanation very simple o As you start to build evidence you can build on it Research in Animal Behaviour: Comparative Psychology in North America Edward L. Thorndike (1874 - 1949): think of an objective way to measure animals  Learning curve, it is drawn on the x axis (trials, numbers of participation in a particular session and y axis (time). The jagged curve  Started to conceptualize: did this through cats o Put cat in a box (puzzle box) o Door is closed o There is a lever hanging from the ceiling, animal needed to move the orientation of the lever to escape from the box. o Some animals had a very quick learning curve o Curve going up : o Curve going down ( see most of the time): fair bit of time, over amount of time the learning curve starts to go down Margaret F. Washburn (1871 - 1939)  True thinking  Catoluguing the behaviour of: amebas and vertebrates ( comparative literature Research in Animal Behaviour: Behaviourism B.F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) Skinner boxes Field of comparative psychology that studies behaviour independent of animal mental states or consciousness  Not make any assumptions about the brain  Measure activity of behaviour o Light goes on, animal has to press lever and gets food  Measuring change in bahviours, over a period of time does the animal learn that when the light goes on it has to press lever and it gets food  Pigeons pecks where the light goes on, and it will get food We can measure Response rate:  Number of responses/ time (sec, minutes, hours) A form of learning in which the consequences of behaviour are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of a response or to shape an entirely new response. Skinner said, we really have to look at the consequence  Whether a behaviour increases or decrease the behavior has to due with the positive or negative consequence  Example TA: going to a good TA, wanting to go back or going to a TA that doesn‟t help you, you won‟t go back  Penny getting chocolate every time she did something good, positive reinforcement Watson agreed with this concept John B. Watson (1878-1958)  Role of environment on behaviour  The mind, if it existed was irrelevant  The mind-body problem was of no interest to a scientist Ivan P. Pavlov (1849 – 1936)  Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which an association is formed between one stimulus and another.A stimulus is any event or object in the environment o Stimulus: any object, even, animal  Pavlov dog; bell, saliva, food o Not salivating because of food, but the bell was a signal that food was on its way  Pairings in things o Walking down an alley and a dog jumps out but is on a leash, the next time you walk by an alley and make sure there is nothing there, because you experienced fear Stimulius: anything in the environment ( light) Response: your response to the environment, whatever the individuals response is Unconditioned: no training required (blinking) Conditioned: what occurs after the training Neutral Stimulus (NS)  is an occurrence that currently does not produce a response when it is presented. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  is a previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, produces an unlearned response. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)  is any stimulus that automatically produces a response without any prior learning. Conditioned Response (CR)(Needs to be some sort of training)  is the learned response made to the conditioned stimulus. Unconditioned Response (UR)(no training required)  is the automatic unlearned response made to the unconditioned stimulus. CS – light ( requires a bit of training, you learn that it is asssociated with a shock Stimuli Response Unconditional Stimuli (US)-- Uncondidtional Response (UR) Conditional Stimulus (CS) -- Conditional Response (CR) order of presentation of stimuli Is important, or learning won‟t take place Taste Aversion Dead sheep (US) ----- Tasty! (UR) Dead sheep (US) + LiCl (US) ----- Barf (UR) Dead Sheep (CS) ----- Yuk! (CR) 9/9/2013 4:34:00 AM Bystanders (eavesdroppers)  Thirdparty Audience effect:  influence of bystander of the behavior of the signaler or receiver Audience effects in fighting fish  Conductive two separate experiments  Statistics are different., they are different by the data that was go was not compared to one another Methods: fighting fish (betta splendens) looking at behavior of male fish  If you introduce a by standard,  Looking at impact of male and female by standards  were Treatments:  Experiment1:Female bystander o Got information about when there was a female bystander o There is more movement when there is a female audience o When got to mean number of bite, the number of aggressive accounters decreases o Didn‟t want toharm itself if there was a mating opportunity  Experiment 2:Male bystander o Saw no differences with the male bystander  No bystander Chapter 7 9/9/2013 4:34:00 AM Foraging behaviour Learning Objective  Animals find food using a variety of sensory modalities  Visual predators find cryptic prey more effectively by learning a search image  The optimal diet model predicts the food types an animal should include in its diet  The optimal patch-use model predicts how long a forager should exploit a food patch Animals find Food using sensory modalities how does the sensory aspect help them location fish lateral: to the side  There are scales, pores and there are also neuromast (yellow circles)  Neuromast: within there are hair cells which are connected to nerves and neurons, these hair cells are composed of cilia(movement). There are mechanical receptors. When there is cilia movement it allows to produce action potential. In the responses of changes in the water  Hydrodynamic )hydoro=water/dynamic=changes  Mechanoreceptors o Hearing o Detection of body position and orientation o Water pressure/velocity/direction o Movement/ presence of others Catfish Track the Wake of Their Prey Research question: How do nocturnal (Silurus glanis) catfish find food in the dark? (Pohlmann, Grasso, & Breithaup 2001) Hypothesis: Catfish use their lateral line system to detect cues provided by the wake(changes in water as individual moves forward) of their fish prey Prediction: Catfish will follow the wake of their prey while hunting Methods:  Observed catfish (Silurus glanis) hunting individual guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  Used an infrared video system to track the movement of both predator and prey in complete darkness  Classified movement sequences as “path following,” “head-on encounters,” or “attack on stationary guppy” _INPUT PICTURE Research question: Do catfish use chemical or hydrodynamic cues to track their prey in the dark? (Pohlmann, Atema, & Breithaup 2004) Methods:  Used an infrared video system to track the movement  Manipulated either the lateral line or external gustation (chemical sense, remove portion of brain if you want to remove it: medulla oblongata removed)  Classified hunting success and movement sequences of treatment fish - when you increase wake following you increase the ability to capture prey - lateral line provides information about the overall capute line Bees Use Multiple Senses to Enhance Foraging Efficiency Research question: Is foraging more efficient when multiple sense are used? (Kulahci, Dornhaus, & Papaj 2008)  Colour and shape/ odour of flower  Different characteristics used to locate food  Chemical cue in food Methods:  Trained individual bees (Bombus impatiens) to feed on artificial flowers Treatments  1. Visual Cue (circle or (cross- contain sucrose solution)) shape associated with it o visuals, circle is associated with sugar water the cross is not, an  2. Olfactory Cue (peppermint/ cloe)  3. Shape and Olfactory Cue o bees are using multipsensory o honey bee is using multiple modalities o when we combine they bring individuals back because they have the olfactory and the visual cue Blue jays Use a Search Image to Find Prey Research question: Do blue jays use a search image to find cryptic prey? (Pietrewicz & Kamil 1977; Pietrewicz & Kamil 1979)  experience is important Methods:  Trained birds to search for moth images on a computer screen  Scored correct and incorrect responses to images (moth present or absent on screen) Two treatments Run & Nonrun Birch & Oak Tree Picture Birch & Oak Tree Picture With Moth Without Moth Positive Image: Peck 10x Negative Image: Peck 1x Peck screen 10 times to get reward RUN NONRUN (50/50) 8 Negative Images 4 Positive Images 8 Positive Images 4 Positive Images 8 Negative Images would they become more affective in picking out the more cryptic prey  if individual had experience with same individuals they would get really good at picking out their prey  over a period of session, regardless of what moth there is an increase of percentage correct  50/50 there is no improvement Optimal Foraging Theory  Many Optimal foraging theory (OFT) models assume that fitness while feeding increases with energy intake rate  Assumes something very specific this model focuses on energy, how much energy are you getting out of this food, handleing time is also built into this model  Model tried to predict what type of food an animal should eat for optimal fitness  The behaviour that maximizes fitness is called the optimal behaviour Two w
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