LINGUIST 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Sneakers, Idiolect, Standard Language

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Ling Lec 11A 26 Mar, 2013
Today’s Objective
To examine some factors that lead to language variation
Traditional view
Standard language: proper, correct, formal, prestigious
Dialect: regional, uneducated, colloquial, sloppy, lazy
As a linguists:
We say “ Everyone speaks a dialect!”
“ A language is just a dialect with an army and a navy.” (Max
Weinreich)
Variety:
English [British vs. Canadian]
French [France vs. Quebec ]
Hindi vs. Urdu
Mutual intelligibility
Cantonese & Mandarin
o Sharing writing system
Swedish & Norwegian
What varies across varieties?
Lexicon
He knocked her up on Saturday and on Sunday he gave her a ring.
Ex. image of a running shoe
a. running shoe, b. runner, c. sneaker, d. tennis shoe, e. something
else (joggers, athletic shoe)
Phonology (a.k.a. accent)
Ex. “about”
Morphosyntax
Ex. “Have you a dollar?”
Variables, indicators, markers
The word “eh” is an indicator.
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rhotic: fork
What factors lead to variation?
Place (Read section 14.2)
Time
Isolation
SES- social economic status
Ethnicity
Gender
Variation & varieties
Probabilistic
Speech community
Sociolect reacting with a specific social group
Ethnolect
Idiolect your own language
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