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Lecture Notes: Canada

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Simon Wood

CANADA French Folk Music: Old World Roots of New World Songs Marius Berbeau - collected 4000 songs - estimated 19/20 songs had arrived in Canada between 1608-1673 - analysed by region - quebec and the gapspe: ballads, narratives, and complaintes - Montreal and Trois Rivieres: lyric songs Roots of Folk Song - many date back medieval times - some have hundreds of versions - melodic contours: often the first phrase has a third, then a fifth, often to a high point, then back to the tonal centre - small number of pitches used - very different contours from First Nations melodies Les Coureuers De Bois - French traders who travelled inland on rivers and lakes - needed skills to live off the land - many of mixed heritage - paddling songs: 2 phrase structure, call and response Music for Dancing Dances - used folk song tunes - use of violin - fifes and drums from military - tambourin (pipe and tabor) - acadians came from Poitu, famous for instrumentalists and dancers Acadia - different repertoir - grands chansons - historical themes - religious - popular imagery - soldiers, sailors - lullabies - children's songs Acadian Music Tradition - expelled from Canada during war in 1755-1763, forced removal by the British (Nova Scotia, PEI, New Brunswick) - deported to American colonies, later to England and France, some left for Upper Canada - led to death from disease - many fled to what is now Louisiana Acadian Music - fiddle music - a saint melo - rhythmic characteristics - melodic characteristics Quand J`ai Parti Du Canada - quand j`suis parti du canada - pour m`en aller dance les Etats - j`avais une simple valise - tout mon butin etait dedans - jàvais une simple valise - mais de l'argent y'en avait peu dedans - Sung by Suzi Le Blanc PART 2 - what the British brought The British Conquest - Early 1700s: French controlled from New Foundland to the prairies, north almost to Hudson Bay, south through Ohio and Mississippi valleys, to Louisiana, 70,000 colonists - Britain: more than 1 million colonists - Lots of skirmishes between the two groups British Band Music - importance of military bands, fifes and drums - 1762: bands must have: 2 trumpets, 2 french horns, 2 bassoons, 4 oboes or clarinets - must also be able to play “cello, bass. Violin, and flute” - british usage: “band” was winds and strings - dancing, church, concerts, theatre t
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