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Peace Studies
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The state is a combination of: Territory Pop Govt Sovereignty Legitimacy Not a state is missing one.. Diff nature of the state Secular vs theocratic state Secular: no state religion, recognizes all religions equally, stays equally distant from all religions but equal respect to all religions ..stay neutral but respectful Ie Canada, US Theocratic: every citizen needs to follow that religion, imposes state religion Ie Saudi Arabia, Iran, UK – the monarch and constitution has a state religion but does not impose Welfare state vs exploitative state Welfare state: state takes care of its people Exploitative state: ie bourgeoise where weaker pop is exploited Civil society Powers of the govt Civic organizations (ngos) and govt (representatives of the state) work hand in hand Realist/idealist debate Five motives why nations go to war To seize or take back territory To liberate/redeem ppl To spread ideology or religion To revolutionize: revolutionary war To separate/secede ie Quebec Separation..which was resolved by vote, democratic process If war, the state may have become ruthless ALL GUIDED BY FEAR, HONOUR, AND INTEREST (economic) Ie Taiwan and mainland China..Taiwan being claimed by PRC..but Taiwan independent (by UK)..but if China takes Taiwan back, some countries will oppose ie the US ...because they have economic, and geopolitical interests War War or the fear of war has constantly shaped and reshaped world history/Relations between the States: War is a violent policy of enforcing one’s will All nations are products of war Ie 1971 Bangladesh was created and suceded from Pakistan Different phases of wars Monarchs’ ambitions (18 C)h Anglo-french rivalries for colonies and commerce French revolution aftermath – revolutions main cause of International War Monarchs launched glorious foreign war to unite their country (19 C)h Capitalist chasing markets and investment outlets (mercantilism) – capitalism ie Afghanistan war US wants to control their oil WWI: armaments and arms sales –when nations produce many arms they need buyers Militarist regimes responsible for both world wars Cold War and Post Cold War No direct confrontation But Korea (1950s), Vietnam (1960s) and Afghanistan (Soviet Union)(1970s) were proxy wars Cold War:Arms race...destructive weapons manufactured International community became bipolar world, two poles, two camps: Marxism, Soviet Union vs US – democracy, liberal, capitalists vs communism...iron curtain...Soviet Union not shown to outside world..hidden behind curtain Competition between the two powers..but did not engage actively in war..but was proxy war !!Proxy war: small countries engaged in active war and you supply logistics, ammunition, etc Latest war Factors Role of leaders Economic factors Psychological decision making factors Historical factors The sale of military hardware (military-industrial complex) International political climate including regional geo-political realities Ie if US went to war, Canada would be dragged in Ie US and Canada are tied into a military treaty where if one country is invaded, it will be deemed as an attack on the other country also NATO – military org. ..if one member country is attacked, all other member countries are allied and will pool resources to divert Ie Syria regime, Bashar’s, is supported by Iran and Russia and Iraq Opposing regional countries are Saudi Arabia, Quatar, Turkey, US, Canada so they send money to the rebel organizations, The Free Syrian Army to oppose Bashar’s regime But if Bashar’s regime is toppled, there will be a war 1962 Cuban missile crisis Soviet missiles were installed in Cuba..US found out..arms race..fear mongers said Soviet Union is about to attack make preemptive attack to destroy their missiles Neo-conservatives..extreme conservatives..responsible for Bush invasion into Afghanistan and Iraq Group in republican party..tried to influence govt in 2003 to invade JFK dissuaded his cabinet members not to go to Cuban missile crisis averted from
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