- Dignity of Persons
o Reasons to determine our actions – we have the faculty of choice, unlike animals
who are purely instinctual.
o We are autonomous
We set ends and act on maxims of our own choosing – we have the power to
set ends and make maxims, and choose to use means to achieve our ends.
We cannot be compelled to our ends, we must choose them freely
o These features of human beings, our humanity, grounds our dignity (an example of
which is our incomparable and unconditional moral worth)
People have dignity, not price; things have price, Kant believes we cannot
put prices on people.
o Persons: we act according to our conception of laws – we have wills, autonomies.
o Hypothetical imperative: represents necessity of an action as a means for attaining
something one wants
A conditional command - juxtaposed with the strictness of morality.
o Categorical imperative: represents an action as objectively necessary and good in
itself without reference to another end.
Morality is necessary, not contingent
Holds for us as rational beings, not though, for holy or divine wills (angels
- The categorical Imperati