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POLSCI 2I03 (101)

Session5 Political Sci 2I03 Summer 2013

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Political Science
Mark Busser

The United Nations 5/23/2013 3:32:00 PM MIDTERM REVIEW- 100 marks /10 M/C /10 Fill in the blank – fill in the term or word that best fits and completes a sentence or paragraph /10 Identification – identify and explain the significance of major empirical and theoretical elements of our course so far; choose 5 of 6 to identify (5 choices of 2 marks each) Section 4- Written Response /10  Review notes form class lectures 1-5  Review assigned textbook chapters from week 1-5  Study Key terms and Concepts sheet  Review Key Points in textbook & read the questions at the end of each textbook chapter. **3 Paradigms The United Nations  Alta conference was where the discussion to create the United Nations;  Official founding conference was in San Francisco in April 1945 with 51 Member States UN Membership Today  193 Member States as of May 2013  Vatican City, Taiwan, and Kosovo are not full member states in the latter two cases because of the international politics of diplomatic immunity recognition  Controversy continues to surround the capacity, which Palestine should participate at the United Nations, again because of fierce disagreements about its recognition as a legitimate nation-state. Principles of the UN  Collective Security is a principle that attempts to raise international relations out from a self- help system by setting out mechanisms of mutual protection and principles such as the peaceful settling of disputes  Multilateralism refers to international cooperation by three or more nation-states; Usually contrasted to unilateralism and/ or bilateralism. o Ex; Bush Administration on war on terror – unilateralism that expressed a clear commitment to willingly take action alone- whether or not other states would join it. o Bilateral would refer to connections/ cooperation‟s specifically between two countries; treaties, special relationships, deals/ negotiations that would serve to undermine multilateral institutions.  Ex; „International Criminal Court‟ – as a result of a treaty of 1998 that aims to punish leaders & other violators of human rights for acts of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The USA has been a vocal opponent of the international criminal court. – The USA signed bilateral agreements with all types of countries around the world, getting them to agree that if American soldiers were charged in this court, they agree NOT to bring these cases to court. United Nations Charter  Emphasizes Collective Security setting out parameters, principles, rules and practices 6 Principle Organs of the UN 1. General Assembly – main deliberative body 2. Security Council: international peace and security 3. Economic and Social Council: steering and managing cooperative pursuit of development 4. International Court of Justice: international LAW- laws between nations where countries and governments challenge each other for trade disputes and other wrongdoings between the two states. 5. Trusteeship Council: “trust territories‟ (now defunct) 6. Secretariat: administrative, research; the bureaucracy of the UN  GENERAL ASSEMBLY o All member states have a seat (193 at present) o Main deliberative body o Now dominated by many new states; many of them former colonies and most form the global south.  SECURITY COUNCIL o 15 members (2013)  10 elected members (cycles of 2 year terms) 5 Permanent Members o Deals with threats to international peace and security  Article 39 of charter “shall determine any disturbance of peace or act of aggression to peace” o The Permanent 5 members of Security Council: USA, China, Russia, France, UK o Have the ability to null ANY resolution proposed to security council- ALL 5 veto- yielding members. Not only are their seats permanent, but also have an extreme ability to prevent acts of peace; especially with the prospect of increased intervention in the world. KEY Articles of the UN Charter  Chapter VI focuses on the peaceful settlement of disputes  Chapter VII focuses on responses to threats  Article 41 authorizes the Security Council to take coercive measures not including the use of force (i.e. sanctions or disruptions of communications)  Article 42 authorizes the Security Council to take military action “as may be necessary to maintain or restore international pace and security”  Article 51 protects the rights of states to self-defense Selected Declarations and Conventions  Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)  Genocide Convention (1948) – puts limits on transferring children, destroying cultural artifacts, and physically eliminating groups of people.  Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951)  Convention Against Torture (1984)  Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) Is the United Nations a Promise or a Problem? - Efficiency and utility of the UN; what steps can we take to improve its structure 4 Dimensions we should Focus on  1. Security Council - Its role and what it is for/ should be for. It‟s Distribution of power?  2. General Assembly - should continue to be a forum for debate but how efficient is it? Is it an exaggeration currently?  3. Agencies and Commissions - Are they threatening to form a world-government? (Conspiracy theories?) Are they Helpful in giving us information and tracking data? Do they advocate for the powerless and set goals for cooperation?  4. As a Framework and Forum- is it necessary to have a United Nations? CASE STUDY: Egypt Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956): Nationalization by President Gamal Abdel Nasser  Nationalism: government overrides outside claims to resources of land and asserts it should now belong to government.  Suez Canal had built it under French; declared it should be a neutral zone as it was an important route for ships to get to southern Africa. The Neutral zone was overseen by the British instead of the French  When Nasser decided it was a rightful Egyptian resource and decided to nationalize it, it resulted in a Military attack by Britain, France and Israel. NASSA‟s decision was not what they agreed with so they attacked.  America and Soviet Union were not happy with British, Israeli and French invasion- they were also trying to maintain reassurance with partners around the world. United Nations Emergency Force (1956) was deployed to help keep the peace. Canadian Minister of External Affairs (Lester B. Pearson) took a vocal role in organizing this Peacekeeping operation. He became known as the “Father of Peacekeeping”  Pearson Awarded Nobel Price (1957) Canada as a Middle Power with Soft Power o Canada likes to assert that it has no colonial history of conflict however it DOES o Canadian foreign officials would maybe say that Canada has no colonial external history of conflict A Post- Colonial Account of the Suez Crisis  The status quo of Suez Canal was the result of unequal treaties, forced or slave labor, and unfair international arrangements  A double-standard applies to similar canals worldwide  Nasser has been unfairly portrayed as irrational, unjust and extreme in dominant accounts of the crisis  The United Nations response, while on the surface censuring a war of aggression by Britain, France and Israel, helped to re-establish a new status quo that ensured access for outside powers. Marxism and International Relations Marxist vs. Marxian Marxist: somebody who supports or practices "Marxism" -- the revolutionary theoretical works of Karl Marx; Someone either linking to, supporting, or implementing "Marxism". Marxian: relating to the theoretical and practical "works" of Karl Marx. Karl Marx  The Communist Manifesto  Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy  Capital “The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness” Marx  Relationship between material factors of society were what shaped and led to certain superstructures or ideas of society.  Ex a Capitalist Mode of Production – shapes and guides human thinking, attitudes about the state and society and all other ideational parts of human life, in a way that draws the link from material to ideational. Material relations of human existence shape ideas of society. Base and Superstructure  Base: the material basis of society, especially the technological means of production and the existing relations of production between people  Superstructure: the ideational layer of society, including laws, culture, institutions, governments, etc. Marx - “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given, and transmitted from the past.” Structure vs. Agency  Agents: the actors who make choices and take action to have an effect on their social world (i.e. theory exercise “agency”), often by engaging in resistance  Structures: the lasting social arrangements that provide the context in which agents act, and which place limitations on the choices available to them  For Marx, structure and agency form a “dialectic”; an entwined process of interplay between the two. “The history of all existing societies is the history of class struggle” –Marx & Engels Communist Manifesto A Materialist Concept of History  Historical Materialism: the idea that the flow of history is shaped by the relations of production and the means of production  Capitalism is an exploitative form of class relations where the capitalist bourgeoisie unfairly exploits the working-class proletariat and extract surplus value from their labor  Capitalism contains internal contradictions that will inevitably cause
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