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Lecture 2

Political Science 2j03 Week 2 Lecture 1.docx

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Political Science
Richard Mc Master

 Term paper due in Early June  Paper on global Political Economy  Check avenue for details as to how to write paper (avenue not up yet doe)  Realism: o Economic nationalism o Mercantilism o State centric  Security o Zero sum game  Assumption  Contrast to liberalism  Winners and losers and one must take it upon himself to be a winner and sometimes you must make sacrifices and allow yourself to progress at the expense of others o Thomas Hobbes  1588-1679 English philosopher  Lived in period of upheaval and turmoil (English civil war; England in period of anarchy)  Social Contract theory  Idea that order can best be attained by a group of individuals who bind themselves together and formulate a craft a state a leviathan a Gov. that represents all the diff individuals within society  Out of the feat of state of nature  State of nature  Famous quote: What is life without a state of nature? Nasty, poor, brutish and short. In a state of nature there is no prosperity only poverty and human suffer  Everybody is equal in state of nature; because everybody has the ability to kill everyone else; associated with fear, death, and destruction  Gives some rights to state so government can provide order  But, need strong, central authority for law, prevent civil war and anarchy  First comes order  And then perhaps justice  You cannot talk about markets, justice, free trade, gold standards, without order! Order has to exist before that. And the ultimate guarantor of order is the state.  Famous quote from Hobbes leviathan chapter eight  Because every man is against every man – nothing can be unjust  Anarchist condition at this time  There is no common power and therefore there is no law; no morality  Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues  Where will we find this state of nature:  In the interstate system: international and relations between states because there is no leviathan for these states. The state does not decide to wave its own rights to support a super leviathan. And therefore force and fraud are the two virtues, no ethics or justice  State of nature may have never really existed but it is between states and perhaps aboriginal people  Statist model o Wealth is interdependent on three other  Security  a secure arrangement between individuals and secure arrangements between states o Power  States will need to attain power because if I don’t I create an incentive within this international structure for others to increase their power at my expense  (I being a state) o Recognition  Mutual recognition  Is there no justice or injustice?  Is international politics a society?  More from the leviathan chapter  No industry o Does not fit with the world in which we live in currently o Globalization  No culture of the earth  No trade or cooperation  No knowledge or society  Is the international system nasty, brutish and short  No concept of time  What is the logic of an anarchic system? The state of nature? o In that condition ruled by fear the logic is that you want to get out of that culture o Which is why the give their rights to the leviathan aka the government to create institutions making order o Alexander Hamilton – economic nationalism  1755-1804 founding fathers of the US  1 secretary of the treasure (1789-1795) (responsible for the multiple currencies of the US)  Impose taxes on imports;  Against free trade;  Hamilton trying to get away from taxes (due to US revolution);  Believed British taxes to be
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