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Lecture 4

Political Science 2j03 Week 4 Lecture 1.docx

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Political Science
Richard Mc Master

Global Development Test - Someone who declined to be interviewed * hint for the test - Concepts - No dates, but understand sort of when they happened (era/decade) - respond to 9 out of 18 Measuring Development  GDP per capita is good when above 37 000  GDP is also good, adds on more countries such as India and China  Growth rates as a percentage of countries GDP (shown on IMF website)  Another growth rate is shown which is more volatile showing more depths and valleys o We can see from the growth rates is that the overall growth rates of advanced economies is lower than emerging economies  Human development index o Education (literacy rate/level achieved) o Access to healthcare o GDP per capita  Measuring poverty looks at the percentage of the population that lives on less than 1.25 per day (largest = Nigeria)  GINI coefficient o A measure of inequality (can be measured as a percentage) o 0 = total equality o 1 = maximal inequality o Used to measure income or wealth in society o Interesting because India has almost 40 percent of pop living on less than 1.25 a day compared to china which is around 16% however India has almost ten percent lower (India = 30, china = 40) on the GINI coefficient o Canada is a little bit less than India o Inequality is not subjected to the global South  Hard power o looks at military numbers Development as Janus Faced  Objectionable o Neocolonialism o Inequality  Attractive o Economic liberalism o Pov Red  Janus = roman god who had a double faced; God of both the past and the future and this is true of development, there is this tension of how the past defines the present (history of colonialism) also how the past affects how we theorize about the pursuit of power and wealth Bretton Woods, 1944  Trying to negotiate world order after WW2  ITO o Liberalize trade o Gradual attempt to liberal trade, seemed very objectionable (many people who were affected by the war were unable to participate in compelte free trade so they negotiated that whoever had a role in leading industry )  IMF o Lender of last resort money o FX stability o As capitol became liquefied , FX became less stable The World Bank Group  International Bank of Reconstruction and Development , 1944-5 o International Finance Corperations – 1956 o International Development Association (IDA) 1960 o International Centre for settlement of investment disputes ((ICSID) 1966 o Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 1988  emerge in bitter context of N S relations  IBRD o Establish interdependence amongst both victors and those defeated in WW2 o Immediate redevelopment of NA o Helped moved a war economy into a more business economy o Western Praxis of Bretton Wood  Praxis = Practice and Theory mixed, Keynesian economics and that of practice of this type of embedded economy o Focus on building infrastructure = main goal o Europe  Marshall plan  How Europe received funds from the IBRD  Imperative of the government to extend loans to develop W Europe, because of the threat of global communism, and the socialist parties of W Europe o East Asia  Special procurement and US aid  Bring Japanese government into a western government so they did not feel isolated  Show Japan that its power and wealth is just as important as the US o What about the rest of the world  Had a difficult and trying time  So much of the global South was a part of W Europe imperialism (Parts of india/africa/Gulf states/Middle East/South E Asia)  The position of the US was that of decolonization, to remove the instruments of imperialism from places like Africa, Asia etc.  In 40’s-50’s  Offer them a way into Western International Economy  State was either: o Inheriting, colonial apparatus (Poor healthcare, but good police and security) o Creating powerful institutions (good army) o Creating nationalistic Identity (comes from the context of a lot of European empires not being willing to let go of their colonies)  Required guerilla warfare to create this loss of colonies  Or aligning with the Eastern Bloc Case Study  Suex Crisis  Example f politics between western order, imperialism, and the oviet union and the decolonizing world and the decision they needed to make  made in 19 century, made by French and british  for 100 years , canal controlled by British because of soverinty of Egypt  a revolution occurs in Egypt that is against a constitutional monarchy and set up a socialist revolutionary state lead by Gamal Nasser  Nasser would give speeches to the Egyptians but really to Arabic world denouncing the tyranny of colonialism and those gov that appeared to be free that were really stooges of British and French  It was worried by Europe that Nasser as a revolutionary nationalist, that he would threaten security of the canal  in 1955 he goes to give another speech and he is not himself, he keeps on saying name of French architect of the canal randomly, because this name was a code word to rush the canal and they nationalize the canal without firing a shot  Seen as abhorrent to French and the British  Anthony Eden (British prime minister) meet with US president and talk about reclaiming the canal, the US president completely disagrees with their proposal and the logic is a fear that that kind of action would just prove to the decolonizing world that the Bretton woods order and institutions like the world bank and IMF was all overlapping and Bretton woods would be backed up by Violence and war  B prime minister and someone else join Israel who is willing to play along  Israel will invade the Sinai and the French and British paratroopers will come into the sini as a way to separate the British armed forces and the Israel forces. Act as fake peace troopers and then they start firing shots  Someone threatens to nuke Paris because of this  US president is angry “French and British can boil in their own oil”  Lester b Pearson comes to UN and proposes a peace keeping mission allowing French British and Israel to withdraw o Shows proof to the decolonizing world that the violence that might threaten them, there will also be some potential for hope, some W countries believe in International stability  Challenges o Poverty o Colonial Wounds o Two overlapping continuums  Growing ideology of Liberal thought on development (Free markets are efficient)  But it is the relationship of the state to these markets that are being contested  And on the other hand there is the Statist  You need the state  It is the market that is contested International Financial Corporations  Encourage financial investment  Capital flows were not unrestricted, the World bank created a new institution within itself to encourage the private sector to invest internationally into developing countries  Seen as the time before the Trans national corporations  Give technical advice to Countries  Famous theory: Walth Whitment Rosto – The non-communist manifesto “Rostovian Takeoff Model” or “Modernization theory” o 5 stages the global is needed to follow to make changes to income and wealth o
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