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Poli Sci 2J03 - Jan 20, 2014.docx

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Political Science
Robert O' Brien

Started on: 01/20/2014 C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 2J03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 M ONDAY , ANUARY 20, Y CHAPTERS 3,4,5 GPE History Institutions - World Bank - Monetary Fund - Characteristics and features have their origins in the late 40s and 50s - To understand why the system was created, need to go back a bit further. - Explanation for these institutions come out during the inter-war period - This was a product of what happened during the 1800s th Map 2.1 Regions of the 15 century world economy -Book begins just before the origins of a “truly” global political economy -Look at the world during the 1400s -It traces world economies, which are not “world” but instead regional economies and looks at how they function during this time -See how the ellipses sketch out the ‘regional’economies 1. Europe 2. Christian and Islamic Middle East 3.Asia & Middle East with China 4. Roots across the Persian Gulf or the red sea that would bring products into the Indian Ocean economy (5) overlapping with the south East Asian economy (6) EastAsia etc. -When we are talking about these economies we are talking about ‘elite’goods; luxury goods. -Products that were being traded all across thest roond -Products of area 7-8 (China) were heavily desired in the 1 and 2 areas - Such as Silk, China dishes -There was a constant flow of goods and money -Europeans desired products from the East American Regional Economies 11 and 12 - Elaborate but isolated - Were not linked to the Eurasian Land Mass - We are interested in the two links Eurasia andAmericas Why leave Europe? - Riches of the East - Path blocked by Venetians and Ottomans - Need for $$ o Europe was being reigned by money o Europe did not have products that they could exchange with people in the East o Flow of money was continuous out of Europe o Desire to discover new sources of Mineral Wealth Angie © McMaster University 1 Fall 2013 Started on: 01/20/2014 - What were the forces that were driving these connections? - 1492 by Ridley Scott - Spain and Portugal o What were they like? o Medieval, futile, burning people at the stake for religious heresy o Representatives of this state go to the Americas, thinking they were going to get to China and India o There was a desire to get to China and India to access silks, ceramics and luxurious products. However the problem was that this route was blocked and they could not get across the Mediterranean (Venetians and the Ottomans) o Genoa was a rival of Venice (competition) and Spain and Portugal were in competition with Venice, Christopher Columbus goes to Spain and seeks money to go to India The beginning of Mercantilism / Imperialism - Creation of economy that links Europe and the Americas Also linking Europe withAfrica and Asia - Mercantilist (Economic Nationalist) o People in engaged in creating the economy believe that the economy is 0 sum o Competition with other countries o Their gain is other people’s losses o Britain would engage in economic activity with its own colonies o France would also engage with its own colonies, etc. o There would be rivalry between the main countries o There was the discouragement of economic activity between France and Britain, instead they were only linked to their home countries - Imperialist o European states would dominate where they could the people they encountered o They would launch economic and political, military and ecological assault on these societies with the goal of re-arranging them, re-ordering them to the benefit of the European States Patterns of Relationships between Europeans and Non-Europeans - AMERICAS o Ecological imperialism  When Europeans came to the Americans, they brought with them animals, plants and their diseases  Smallpox  25 million people died in current Mexico  Plants and animals imported into theAmericas to re-organize the natural system in a way that is more suitable for Europeans o Economy devoted to mines  Getting silver and gold out of central and southAmerica, so that it could feed the European desire for luxury goods from the East o Feudal landholding  Spanish and Portuguese bring with them understandings about how politics and the economy should be structured  Set up a system  Feudal “system”  Small number of owners and a large section of people working these areas 2 Started on: 01/20/2014  There are still countries in LatinAmerica that still carry on unequal social structure and entitlement to land  Racial hierarchies that are created in the different parts of theAmericas • Spanish settlers would be at the top • Aboriginals at the bottom • Mixed people in between o Search for labour  Aboriginal labour is essential for the development of the mines and the farms  There are different patterns being exploited  In Mexico -- used for labour  NorthAmerica -- settler movement • Isolation or genocide • Aboriginal people are eliminated or placed in specific tracks of land - AFRICA o More difficult for the Europeans andAmericans o Ecology is reversed o In theAmericas  European Diseases damagedAmericans o InAfrica  Environment is inhospitable to Europeans  Africans are kept along the coast o Demand in theAmericas for LABOUR to work the plantations and mines  Creates the political economy where Europeans come to the coast ofAfrica and engage economic activity which is securing labour  Slave trade  Estimates of how large this slave trade got -- we do not know!  1450-1600 - 370,000  1600-1700 - 2 million  1700-1800 - 6 million  1800-1900 - 3 million  ~ High mortality rate when individuals were transported fromAfrica to the Americas - TRIANGULAR TRADE o Sending some goods ‘African Iron’some manufactured goods such as Cloth, firearms etc. Are taken toAfrica and exchanged for humans and other things  Cargo is taken to the Caribbean or Southern Uni
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