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C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 2J03
McMaster University, Winter 2014
M ONDAY , M ARCH 10, Y
- Manifest Destiny
o To bring civilization to countries that did not have it
o War on Mexico and obtainment of California on the basis that people living there
were not economically productive
o Notion of development does not have until after the second world war, till get get
into the process of decolonization
- However, what do we mean by development?
o Economic or social indicators? How much does a society produce? How much
wealth can a country generate? Social indicators would look at what are the
conditions under which people live.
- Is development a process or a state of being?
o Is development something that takes place over a long period, is it a set of
activities or is it a final state of being?
- Africa, Asia, Latin America but not Europe
o As a concept has been applied to certain parts of the world and not to other parts
of the World.
o What about the “development” of Germany and Eastern Europe following the
Second World War?
o The process of development is different in other parts of the World
o When the Soviet Union and other European countries had to rebuilt, they were
called “economies of transition”
o Why does this process apply to some parts of the world and not to other parts?
o Is it the case that other process goes through development, or do we simply
o How do we theorize development
Measures by economic terms (GNP, or GDP) per capita!
- How much wealth is generated divided by the amount of people in the country
- Gives a general wealth ‘per’ person
- Human Development Index (adds literacy and life expectancy levels)
- GNP likely in favor of oil produces and unequal distributions of wealth
o Not saying anything about how the wealth is distributed
o It does not affect how they fit into the rankings, but how much it is produced
o Different figures will favor different types of countries
- The HDI is likely to favor socialist, ex-socialist and social democratic states
o Societies where there is an attempt to try to redistribute wealth
o Choice differs
- Different definitions of development will lead to different conclusions of “development”
- Why is HDI important?
o Things such as the ranking systems are used to justify different kinds of policies
Angie © McMaster University 1
Winter 2014 Started on: 3/10/14 8:34:57 AM
When we are looking at development, what do we call the countries that are the subject of
- Developing countries
- Third World
- Global South
- Emerging Markets
- All of these connotations tell us about the kind of subjective lens from which we examine
the development debate
*Theoretical Perspectives: Growth and development:
- Internal vs. External causes of development
- State vs. Market in creating development
The debate about INTERNAL
- Analysis is development, “the things that determines development is what happens in the
o If it’s developed or underdeveloped
o There is a failure of societies to mobilize their resources, strategies for political or
social organization is ineffective
o Modernization theories in the 1960s - Path we can look at from
underdevelopment to development
o Developing countries need to adopt policies that will lead them step by step.
o Need to look at developed states in order to imitate the policies of these
countries, have to adopt the political system and by imitating them they can
proceed the modernization ladder and become developed.
o One of the problems of the internal focus argument tends to neglect structural
factors, it neglects where the country is located in the global economy. It may be
that the country is locked to exporting a specific material, or that it is located in a
- The cause of underdevelopment is not internal, but it is imposed by external factors
- It is their location in the global economy
- Some countries are in a fortunate position and others in an unfortunate position
- Dependency Theory (critical) in the 1970s to try and explain this was dependency theory.
Neo-Marxist theory that argued that countries were locked into relationships of
dependence, and needed to reduce dependence and develop autonomous.
- External causes removed agency (or responsibility) from developing countries
- Even if an un-advantaged position, you could still follow policies which would determine
your relative success?
- You have to look at it on a case by case basis
- Complicated interaction
- In some cases it may be appropriate to say that some countries are restrained by
structural factors, but in other cases countries are not necessarily constrained and can
STATE STRATEGY or POLITICALAUTHORITIES? OR THE MARKET?
- Option 1: State led development and state strategy
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o Development needs to be primarily lead by the state or by a government
o Favored by economic nationalists + critical
o It is the state, which can shape the development of a country
o Economic nationalists talk about the importance of the nation
o Critical theorists look at the structural constrains and gov’ts can still take some
action to reduce their dependency
o Strong state needed to guide the economy
Not militarily strong, but bureaucratically strong
A state that has expertise, and people who know what they are doing in
terms of planning and one that can carry out the plans that it makes.
Strong political leadership to design a plan for development and follow it
o East Asian, NICS choice sectors and gave easy credit
In which you had political and bureaucratic elites choose sectors and
support these sectors such as easy credit to develop exports and fuel
Land reform, the channeling of money to export industries in order to
OPTION II: Market led development
- Favored by Liberal Theory
- Market is efficient allocator of resources
- The market will guide economic growth, indicating what countries will produce
o Comparative advantage, specializing in things that you make the best. Not a