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C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 2J03
McMaster University, Winter 2014
M ONDAY , M ARCH 31, Y
2. Regimes and forms of regulations
3. Key actors
4. Global compact
GLOBAL GOVERNANCE - DEFINITION
- Global governance - overreaching system which regulates human affairs on a worldwide basis
o System as opposed to “National” or “local” governance
o What holds the system together?
o Different terms - “World Order”, “International Organization - the rule making
- We are interested in knowing who rules and HOW?
o What mechanisms are used?
- Cooperation needed, yet:
o The global economy has become so intertwined and linked to each other, that in order to
be prosperous and thrive, we need cooperation between the different units and parts of the
o There is no central government or authority
No one to enforce the rules of the game
o Cultural differences
Words are interpreted differently in different countries, how can we cross these
o Sovereignty of state
Continuing institution of state sovereignty
We believe that states are sovereign, even when they enter international
organizations (they deserve the right to depart from these)
REGIMESAND FORMS OF REGULATION
- How do we facilitate cooperation?
o Concept of “regimes”
“Implicit or explicit principles, norms rules and decision making procedures
around which actors expectations converge in a given area in international
Food division regime
What are the norms and ideas behind these regimes?
What are the rules and how are decisions made?
Principles in the trade regime -- free trade (broad)
• Sub principles such as norms (if you are going to introduce trade barriers,
it has to be in the form of tariffs)
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Formal / explicit rules under the WTO which prevent subsidies to industries
Decision making procedures (dispute settlement panels)
Idea that even though there is not a central authority, we still have these regimes
and arrangements in areas that allow us to know how we behave and
- REGIME MECHANISMS
o Different types of regimes that operate in different ways
o Regimes that have legal framework - WTO, ICC
WTO has the most advanced legal framework!
o Financial resources - IMF, World Bank
Another way that regimes can influence behaviour is through the deployment of
COERCIVE end of international regimes
Apply pressure and force in order to get states to comply
o Moral Appeals - ILO
Do not have legal enforcement or financial resources
Appeal more to morality
International Labour Organization works on labor rights; it cannot force a country
to follow labor rights.
Highlights labor abuses and countries which are violating their conventions
Appeal is the morality of leaders to other states
o Police Expertise - OECD, IMF reports
Reports that are then supposed to influence behaviour.
These reports that are produced by expert hope to influence policy
o Institutions might use more than one mechanism!
Money and policy expertise by IMF for example.
- Some regimes can have a form of structural power!
o Global finance and global financial systems
o Capital makers who influence economies because there is the threat of capital flight
(money leaving jurisdiction)
- Some regimes dominate others
o What is the relationship of one regime to the other?
o Some regimes dominate others?
o Regimes in place for trade and finance dominate regimes for other things such as health or
development or social policy, and environment.
- Large scale change due to system breakdown
o Integration of Americas into the world economy, which spannedAfrica, Asia and Europe.
o Industrial revolution as another key turning point - transferred massive amount of powers
to Britain and Western Europe
- Large change was very costly
o Industrial revolution
o Renewed industrialism
o WWI and WWII
- Incremental steps (in the absence of large scale changes)
o These might shift the system more gradually
- Diversity of actors and levels
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o Governances become much more complex since the 1940s and 1950s
- Corner stone of law and political authority
- Traditional focus of IR and Regimes
- Other actors do not have political authority
- States are representative of people in their region
- Not all equal
- US, CHINA, SaudiArabia, SouthAfrica
- US is at th