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What is Contemporary Security Studies? 3X03 Poli Sci

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Political Science
Mark Williams

Contemporary Security Studies 3X03 – Evening Dr. Mark S. Williams What is Security Studies?  It is the survival of agents that has been the dominant explanatory tool for understanding behavior  For much of the discipline the agent has meant sovereign states  Security is a matter of high-politics; central to policy-making and the priorities they establish o Something of a crown of sorts in Political Sciences o Without a discussion of security, we‟re missing the beginning of politics and the beginning of science  Realism: security of the state, the quest for security of the state is what shapes and defines world order. What does it mean to be secure? What is threatened and from this what is to be secure? Referent object: what is to be secure (Realism: State)  Gender – The behavior of the state is to secure patriarch (e.g.)  Threat VS Securitization: from organized state violence or from beyond the state (transnational groups and organizations, and environmental degradation)  Realism is assumed to be the understanding of society, and economics that has always existed and lurked behind prevailing philosophies. o Realists want to suggest that they have a continuous lineage going back to antiquity or classical era o Milos a very small weak state within the empire of Athens, one of the two hegemons of Greeks.  Milos was not content to be part of the Athenian empire and wanted their freedom  Athens was unnerved by this and didn‟t sit well, and rejected their request for sovereignty.  “It is about the empire itself” – “If we grant you independence and sovereignty, then we will also have other similar requests”  Lesson: The strong do what they will, and weak will suffer what they must  Realists see as a guiding truth for world order  Dialectic of class conflicts  Question: Whether or not this dictum truly offers a satisfactory of world order? A core of realism Charles Glazier on Realism: Motivated by power and pursuit of power (offensive) or that their actions are determined by power relations (defensive)  International System is defined by Anarchy and lack of world governance 1  Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan, the state of nature o “NASTY, BRUTISH and SHORT” o Of war, of man against every other man o Individuals existing without government o Why is every person equal in the state of nature  Cause every person can kill any other person, murder and the ability to kill  Realists will suggest that to some degree there is a truth to international politics o War of one against all others o Different degrees of anarchy o Experience of Anarchy between Germany and Russian Federation was different than in World War II than it is now.  Focusing on the Structure of the International System o Anarchy is what determines state behavior  Perspective of realism is that first must come order and then only perhaps can we begin to talk about justice o Only by creating political order and political institutions can we begin to talk about „right‟ and „wrong‟ and what is ethical MODERN REALISM Treaty of Westphalia or to the End of the Napoleonic Wars Napoleon  Attempt after the defeat and the final defeat, to rebuild political order  To rebuild interstate relations and to prevent the rise of hegemonic actor  Napoleon represented a threat to these conservative regimes  Concert of Europe 1815-48 o Congress of Vienna o Great Powers o No major actors can be eliminated o Countervailing alliances against hegemons o Buffer Zones o Non-zero Sum situation  Stable acceptance of war  Recognition and will not act as an existential threat to each other o It will not be a war to entice revolutions in each other‟s backyards o It will not be a revolution to overthrow capitals o Belief that international politics is defined by zero-sum behavior, and to try to prevent any state to see it in their interest to gain power at the expense of overs  The Bismarckian Period 1862-90 o Ottoman Weakening o Unifications  Italy 1859-70  Prussia to German Empire (The creation of a GERMAN EMPIRE) 2 o Period of colonialism and imperialism exporting and promoting violence elsewhere through Asia and Africa o Revised balance of power – looks different when a hegemon has arrived o “One of the three in a world of five” o Three emperors League 1872  Russia and Austria  Dual Alliance (France & Austria)  Triple Alliance (France, Austria and Italy)  The Demise of the System 1890-1914 o End of Realist Policies – Wilhelm II  Is not seen as stable as Wilhelm the First  Story of how he would insult the British in the Major dailies  Seemingly threatening British Naval supremacy o Russia withdrawal from the 3 Emperor‟s league  Ottoman Weakens o French Grievances  Secret alliance with Russia  Obruchev Memorandum (1892)  Recognition of each other‟s interest and each other‟s integrity as distribution of power has changed. Why did this happen? The Three Images of War (How did world war I happen?) 1. The individual a. Polyglot ethnic groups with empires? b. „Inside‟ ethnic groups and „outside‟ groups c. Mixing of people i. Migration of people‟s greater cultural interactions ii. Exacerbating tensions d. Violent Nationalisms e. Serbia and Hegemony f. PSYCHOANALthIC i. 19 Century enlightenment ii. Liberalism iii. Socialism iv. Scientific and rational inquiry v. Lead to the emancipation of Man vi. Virtue, honor and modernity vii. Repression – Of hatreds, xenophobia‟s, etc? 1. Civilization and it‟s discontent g. PERCEPTIONS OF LEADERS i. Misperceptions of Leaders ii. Schlieffen Plan iii. Offensive War iv. “Clear the air” 3 v. War of annihilation 2. The State a. Blamed on the 2 Reich‟ i. Sparta of the North (German Empire) b. Primat der Innenpolitik c. German Unification i. Through conquest ii. Emperor‟s Wilhelm I and II ruled in union with Junkers (Prussian Nobility that dominated) and Industry iii. Reichstag was marginal (Parliament & Foreign Policy for German politics – Domain of high politics) d. Germany as an absolutist state 3. The International System a. Multipolar System or Bipolar System or Unipolar? i. Between the great powers of Western Europe? ii. Bipolar British & Germany? iii. Unipolar? Who was the Hegemon of the system? b. British Empire or Continental Army of Germany c. 5 or 6 Great Powers d. 2 Alliances i. Triple Alliance ii. Triple Entente th e. Do the powers still recognize each other like during the 19 century? i. Do the alliances want to destabilize the system? ii. Were these major conflicts representative of existential threats to each other? iii. What role did Germany have? f. Economic FACTORS i. European Empires in a ste of Perpetual Economic Conflict 1. Age of globalization and mercantilism ii. Currency Becoming Unstable 1. Foreign exchange rates changing iii. Enormous Military Investments iv. Industry and Production Growth GREAT MYTH OF WORLD WAR I – Core assumption of realism  Did Europe react „rationally‟ during mobilization? o Weight cost benefit analysis?  Myth of rational diplomacy  Never really been the case  German fears o Kaiser William II and Moltke the Younger and the Likelihood of loss  Reflected on whether the world would be a successful war  Questioned on whether or not they would loose this conflict o Angry with Austrian prevarications  If Austria had settled with Serbia on their own terms and not asked Berlin for assistance 4  Why do states act irrationally? Woodrow Wilsons 14 Points Negotiation of a post world war order – American President 1. Abolition of secret treaties a. Relationship of states should be open and in the air and not hidden in a back pocket so that all states would know what each other would do in a crisis 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free Trade 4. Disarmament 5. Decolonization 6. Withdrawal from Russian Territory 7. Restoration of Belgium 8. Return of Alsace-Lorraine to France 9. Italian Borders Reflect Ethnic Boundaries 10. Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved 11. Balkans granted Autonomy (Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Etc) 12. Sovereignty of Turkey a. Originally had perceived Turkey to be subject to mandate systems 13. Independent Poland 14. A League of Nations to Enforce the Peace Agreement a. The Americans are not part of it b. Wilson becomes ill and is not able to muster the will of the 14 points Western & Central Europe  Clemenceau and Lloyd George wanted reparations  Germany „blamed‟ o Forced into subservient position o An unacceptable escalation  British had to deal with new power realities o Empire as ultimate balancer  French could not risk another confrontation o Demographic losses Central, Southern & Eastern Europe  Habsburg Empire collapsed  Multitude of nation-states o Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria  Imperial Germany reduced as Wimer Republic Geopolitical Shifts  Balance of power disturbed  Power vacuums in Central and Southern Europe o Realists look at this as the key to understanding World War II  Future conflict inevitable?
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