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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)

Psychopathology 2.docx

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Joe Kim

Psychopathology 2 (Module) Module: Schizophrenia Subtopic: Symptoms of Schizophrenia -Paranoid: positive symptoms: increased presentations in schizophrenics; new behaviours that emerge -Disorganized: negative symptoms: decreased presentation in schizophrenics -Catatonic: catatonic symptoms: movement behaviours not associated with environment (extreme rigidity) Subtopic: Positive Symptoms -disorders of thought, delusions, hallucinations -Disorders of Thought: loose associations; individual’s train of thought may consist of ideas that are often only loosely related to each other -speech may be vague and abstract -Delusions: a belief or irrational, or unsupported by external evidence; common delusions involve the idea that the individual is being persecuted by others, or that events or objects have special significance for the individual -may think the TV is talking to them directly; often, delusions are about thought or thinking itself -Delusions of Thought Broadcast: belief that others can hear one’s thoughts -Delusions of Though Withdrawal: belief that the individual’s thoughts are being removed from his head before he can think of them -Delusions of Thought Insertion: the belief that thoughts are being places in the individual’s head by others -Hallucinations: perceptions of things that are not really there; auditory hallucinations are more common that visual hallucinations -may hear voices, or speaking to her from other parts of her body -voices are usually negative things, commenting on individual’s behaviour or giving orders Subtopic: Negative Symptoms -decrease in individual’s engagement with the outside world; less interested in people and events in the outside world and are more concerned with internal ideas or fantasies -may lead to a growing estrangement from family and coworkers, and an increasing neglect of one’s person appearance -Affect: emotional responsiveness -person with flat or blunt affect show very little emotional response -patient with inappropriate affect shows emotional reactions that are inappropriate for the situation (may laugh when someone speaks of the loss of a family member) Subtopic: Catatonic Behaviour -unrelated to stimuli from the outside world - Catatonic rigidity (stupor): may involve dramatic reduction in movement, sometimes to the point of ceasing to move at all; may maintain single posture for long periods of time and resist being moved -Waxy Flexibility: patients arms and legs can be moved into a variety of positions- like a wax figure-then very slowly move back to the original position -repeated and stereotyped motor movements that seem to have no purpose at all, and are unrelated to the current situation -Catatonic Excitement: involve active or even frantic movements Subtopic: Subtypes of Schizophrenia -Paranoid, catatonic and disorganized -Paranoid: delusions and auditory hallucinations; thought, affect, and motor behaviour are normal -individual often shows anger or anxiety related to the disturbing content of the delusions -Catatonic: strong motor disruption (psychomotor disturbances); stupor (rigidity); excitement -Disorganized: incoherent thought and speech; disorganized behaviour; possible motor disturbance; social withdrawal -Undifferentiated: categorize cases which do not fit into any of the other three categories Subtopic: Causes of Schizophrenia -strong genetic component (diathesis) of schizophrenia -external factors (stress) may trigger genetic predisposition -Diathesis-stress Hypothesis: genetic predisposition for disorder and some environmental stress triggers the symptoms -chemical differences in brain and neurotransmitter behaviour -stress and problems with relationships with others, especially immediate family -higher levels of dysfunction within a family that has schizophrenia Subtopic: Treatment of Schizophrenia -chronic care -pharmacological treatment is now the most common therapy -drugs effective for alleviating schizophrenic symptoms have severely unpleasant side effects of their own -psychotherapy alone is not very effective but it is helpful is patients develop coping strategies once drugs have relieved symptoms -in CBT, patients are taught how to think about their psychosis in order to better cope and they learn how to identify and avoid triggers -CBT is also often used to encourage patients to comply with medicinal instructions through rewarding adherence -CBT-family therapy, to t4each families how to interact in positive and supportive m
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